AP Euro: The Russian Revolution Flashcards

Provisional Government
Terms Definitions
Cheka
All-Russian Extraordinary Commission. New centralized police authority est. December 1917. rooted out Bolsheviks' enemies. Rapidly proliferated into a large organization with virtually unlimited power. Arbitrary arrests
Mikhail Bakunin
leader of anarchists
Bolsheviks
Russian for "majority." Lenin's faction of the Social Democratic Party in Russia, which seized power in October 1917. Unlike most Marxists, who stressed the power of laboring people, Lenin stressed that a highly disciplined socialist elite - rather than the working class as a whole - would lead Russia to socialism.
Alexander II
tsar from 1855- 1881
Nicholas I
Europe's most reactionary monarch
Red Army
Military organization constructed under leadership of Leon Trotsky, Bolshevik follower of Lenin; made use of people of humble background
Comintern
An association of Communist parties founded in 1919 by Russian Bolshevik leader Lenin, to promote the spread of the revolution and the preaching of communist principles throughout Europe.
Nevsky Prospect
around where the upper-and-middle class residential districts and the palatial buildings of imperial government lay in Petrograd. Long street. Shows segregation.
Reds
Bolsheviks called this during the Russian Civil War.
Lenin
father of communism; elder brother involved in a plow to assassinate Alex III and put to death by tsar - he couldn't continue with his studies so joined the pro revolutionaries having no other occupation; arrested and spent 3 years in exile in Siberia; went to western europe til 1917 but made secret trips to Russia; wanted Revolution
USSR
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1922
Rasputin
influenced the court, tsarina believed Rasputin had mystical, saved her son
February Revolution
general strike closes down Petrograd, Russian soldiers mutiny, Bolsheviks and others are arrested because they want to go further than demonstrations, Nicolas 2 abdicated and provisional government was set up awkwardly duly serving with the Petrograd Soviet.
April Crisis
of the provisional government. Was when the minister of foreign affairs, a leader of the Kadets, added something that called for "war to decisive victory" and other stuff to an official communication to the allies. Protests and demonstrations against the war by the Petrograd Soviet ensued, leading to his resignation.
Petrograd
city with a lot of social polarization.
NEP
stand for new economic policy 1921- 1927 Lenins compromise with capitalism as a result of the Terror, WWI, famine, and revolution; meant to be a relaxed tempo of USSR, state controlled commanding heights of economy however allowed a great deal of private trading for private profit to restore trade between town and country, peasants allowed to sell farm products freely, favored kulak or big individualist farmers, also favored neo-bourgeois, repaired worst damages of war and revolution however no real progress
Dumas
result of the Revolution of 1905; parliamentary type state; lasted from 1906 to 1916; semi-constitutional monarchy; First: cadets were the majority; still fighting for the framework of constitutional government; tsar dismisses; cadets fled appeal for another Revolution but nothing happens; Second: social revolutionaries, mensheviks, and cadets; government arrests socialists and dissolves; Third/Fourth: increased representation to landed properties; conservative majority; end in 1916
political left (1906)
social revolutionaries, Bolsheviks and Mesheviks (Social Democrats); refused to recognize Duma; urged workers to boycott it; refused to put up candidates for election
Westernizers
wanted to extend the "genius of Russian culture" by industrializing and setting up a gov
Alexander III
most reactionary czar of 19th century
Duma
national assembly that would serve as an advisory body to the czar
Peter Stolypin
Prime minister of Russia from 1906-1911. He was very involved in fighting radical groups and he also took upon himself various agrarian reforms - which he thought and were proven to be essential for the Russian economy.
Provisional Government
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
War Communism
how the Bolsheviks reacted to the crisis in the summer of 1918 of food shortages and famine. Appropriated heavy industries and gradually put an end to private trade. Created "committees of poor peasants." Forcibly requisitioned food and raw materials, turning poor peasants against wealthier ones. May have saved the Revolution but it took the terrible toll of decline in industrial production.
Tsarina Alexandra
loathed by her subjects. Born in Germany. Granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Raised in England. Converted to Russian Orthodoxy. Had an ill son. Friends with Rasputin a lot. Extended influence over weak-willed husband; conservative. Was not a German agent but served their purposes well.
April Theses
Lenin's. argued that wartime chaos had allowed the bourgeois and proletarian revolutions to merge in a dramatically short period of time, and the overthrow of the aristocracy had handed power to the weak bourgeoisie holding power through the provisional government, which needed to be overthrown by the proletariat
Permanent Revolution
Trotsky's idea after Lenin dies; an incessant drive for proletarian objectives on all fronts in all parts of the world; also world revolution; more forceful development of industry and collectivization of agriculture; immediate adoption of an overall plan; charged Trotsky as leftist deviationism against the Central Commitee
Serge Kirov
friend of Stalin who was assassinated most likely by Stalin's administration however Stalin blamed Old Bolsheviks or those who supported Trotsky for murdering him and tried and killed all of them
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
ended Russian involvement in WWI
Treaty of Portsmouth
Russia accepted Japanese control of Korea, concession to Japan in Manchuria and half of Sakhalin island
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
1918 took Russia out of WWI
Communist Party
A political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and V.I Lenin; originally the Russian Bolsheviks
General Lavr Kornilov
newly appointed commander in chief of the army in 1917 who seemed an obvious candidate to overthrow the provisional government. Tough, decorated Cossack. Escaped from Hungary after being captured during the Great War and was a favorite of the Kadets.
Kornilov Affair
when Kornilov was going to throw a coup and people supported him but there was a misunderstanding between him and Kerensky because kerensky believed that he would forma military government to restore order at first but remain loyal to him and the idea of a democratic government. Kornilov actually liked military style and authority, probably wanted to seize power and impose a right-wing military regime. Kornilov called on the army to be loyal to Russia and aid the dying motherland. There was never an actual coup d'état in this example of counter-revolution but it aided the Bolsheviks, who were able to portray themselves as the only possible saviors of the Revolution.
Pyotr Stolypin
named by Nicolas 2 as prime minister. Did undertake some rural reforms beginning in 1906
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
What is to be Done?
Lenin's pamphlet that established the basic tenets of a new revolutionary party.
Civil War
occured as a result of the loss of land from the treaty of Brest Litovsk and lasted until 1920; basically the soviets/ bolsheviks vs. reactionaries, liberals, bourgeois, zemstavos, constitutional democrats, anti- Lenin Socialists, mensheviks, Social Revolutionaries, and allied powers; the council founded the secret police or Cheka as well as the Red Army; it has a policy of war communism which angered the peasants and caused class war to break out against the Bolsheviks; America and Japan intervene but the Red Army conquer land and the Whites because the anti- Bolsheviks could not unite; the Red terror then occurs killing thousands including all of the opposition; established the new regime; and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or USSR
Czar Alexander I
Czar of Russia from 1801 to 1825; after the defeat of Napoleon's army in 1812, he became one of the most powerful leaders in Europe, supporting the suppression of all revolutionary movements in Russia and Europe
Order Number One
issued by the soviet on march 1 1917. claimed for the Petrograd Soviet the authority to cancel orders of the provisional government on military matters and called for the election of soldiers' committees in every unit.
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
began at the end of March 1917. brings together representatives of other soviets that had sprung up after revolution. Transforms Petrograd Soviet into a national body, est. a central executive committee dominated by members of the Petrograd Soviet. Increased popular pressure for radicalization of Revolution.
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