AP European History 42 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Roman Republic
...
Catherine the Great
18th
European Unity
1945 - Present
Rodrigo Borgia elected pope
15th
Rump Parliament
The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.
Northern Renaissance
Renaissance that emphasized Christianity rather than secularism
Confection
Making things in standard sizes
Simony
The selling of church offices.
Cesare Beccaria
wrote crime and punishment
Kulturkampf
Bismark's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventuallt, after little success, Bismark halted these policies
John Cabot
Fifteenth-century English explorer who traveled to the coasts of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and to New England. His voyages led to England's claim in North America.
Estates-General
French parliment composed of clergy (first estate), nobility (second estate), and everyone else (third estate)
Invented flying shuttle, increasing the speed weavers could make cloth
John Kay
Creoles
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
politique
someone who puts politics above personal beliefs
Castlereagh
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
Bergson
French philosopher who proposed elan vital as the cause of evolution and development (1859-1941)
Black Hand
Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government. They shot Francis Ferdinand.
Constitutionalism
government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Imre Nagy
liberal communist reformer installed as Chief by the people of Budapest
Kulterkampf
Bismarks attempt to attack Catholic Church. Pius XI claimed papal infallibility. Catholics form Catholic Center Party
Risorgimento
Itailian derived and desire for unity
Russification
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Spinning Jenny
Invented by James Hargreave, this allowed 16 spindles of threat to be spun, but by the close of the 18th century its capacity had been increased to as many as 120.
William Gladstone
One of Britain's greatest liberal leaders, he favored expanding political rights for British men. He served several times during the mid to late 1800s.
Charles X
France and Navarre (1757-1836); was king of France from 1824-1830 until the French Revolution of 1830, when he abdicated rather than become a constitutional monarch. He was the last king of the Bourbon line.
Triple Entente
1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia
re-Stalinization
Soviet Union started a period of stagnation. Saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous threat.
Faust
Goethe's greatest masterpiece. It is a dramatic work of poetry which features a man, who, weary of life, makes a pact with the Devil.
John Wycliffe
(c. 1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned teh power of the pope.
Big Three
France with Clemenceau, Britain with Lloyd George, and the US with Wilson
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered a series of wars to unify Germany under his authoritarian rule.
Sovereignty
the supreme authority in a political community; a modern state is said to be sovereign when it controls the instruments of justice (the courts) and the use of force (military and police powers) within geographical boundaries recognized by other states.
manorial rights
privileges of lordship that allowed them to tax the peasantry for their own profit.
Popular Front
Group of French political parties established in 1934 after a right-wing riot, in order to prevent facism in France. Socialist Leon Blum was elected leader. The party's "Matignon Agreement" allowed workers to bargain with employers about wages and hours
Edwin Chadwick
English reformer who believed that disease and death actually cause poverty because a sick worker is an unemployed worker and orphaned children are poor children, also believed that cleaning up the urban environment could prevent disease - his "sanitary idea," proved that disease was related to atmospheric impurities caused by filthy conditions in his "Report on the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain," proposed the installation of running water and sewers, and created the basis for Great Britain's first public health law
Boyle
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
Nazi Soviet Pact
Nonaggression treaty between Russia and Germany allowing Germany to fight a one front war until Germany violated treaty by invading Russia
Jacqueries"
The Jacquerie was a French peasant insurrection in 1358. During the HUNDRED YEARS' WAR the French peasants suffered in the extensive pillaging of the countryside by English soldiers and were further victimized by the financial exactions of their own nobles. On May 21, 1358, an uprising began near Compiegne, northeast of Paris. Led by Guillaume Cale, or Carle, the peasants destroyed castles and slew their occupants. They joined forces with another rebel group from Paris, led by Etienne Marcel, but both groups were routed on June 9 and 10. Savage reprisals followed.
Fabian Society
English socialist who wanted electoral victory over revolting victory
laissez faire
economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
Great Fear
Followed the storming of the Bastille-people were scared of outlaws and reprisals-fanned flames of rebellion.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature; The Leviathan
Estates General
Not called since 1614-finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister-demanded control over the King’s finances -he refused and dismissed them-sat as three segregated groups.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Agreement between Spain and Portugal to divide from north to south the Atlantic Ocean so that the two nations would not be competing for the same lands in their zealous explorations. Spain was to explore the lands west of the line, while Portugal was to have the eastern region.
Extraterritoriality
The right given to foreigners to live using their own laws rather than the laws of the nation in which they reside. Europeans and Americans in the nineteenth century often demanded and received this privilege.
Luddites
This was a social movement of English textile workers in the early 1800's who protested, often by destroying textile machines, against the changes produced by the Industrial Revolution, which they felt threatened their jobs.
Ordinances of Justice
provided for a republican government controlled by the seven major guilds of the city of Florence
Divine Comedy
An epic poem detailing the Christian afterlife by Dante Alighieri
Enlightened Despotism
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
Intolerable Acts
Great Britain's response to the Boston Tea Party. The port of Boston was closed, the Massachusetts charter was revoked, initiated a Quartering Act, and removed the trials of royal customs officials to England.
Scientific Community
a community of scientists founded in different countries in the later 17th and 18th centuries that spoke to each other in a different language to exclude anyone who was not part of the science community. The primary goal was the expansion of knowledge. This is significant because within these communities, science became competitive and scientific advance became even more inevitable.
Father Gapon
Leader of the factory workers who assembled before the czar's palace to petition him on January 1905 (Bloody Sunday).
Michelangelo
Created the Creation of Adam in the Sistine Chapel, which reflected divine beauty in humans. Also sculpted David, which showed the beauty of the human body and human anatomy.
Joseph Conrad
This man wrote Heart of Darkness, where he criticized the Europeans in their civilizing
lateran agreement
a 1929 agreement that recognized the vatican as a tiny independent state, with mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support. in turn, the pope expressed his satisfaction and urged italians to support mussolini's government.
Erwin Rommel
German general who led the Afrika Korps in North Africa
Jesuits
The Society of Jesus is a religious order of men within the Roman Catholic Church formed under the inspiration of Ignatius of Loyola
Iwo Jima
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
electors
people elected by the voters in a presedential election as members of the electoral college
Tithe
A tenth part of one's annual income contributed voluntarily or due as a tax, especially for the support of the clergy or church. b. The institution or obligation of paying tithes.
Gulag
Forced Labor camps in Russia that were set up under Stalin
Crimean War
Russia lost to Ottoman Empire. Russia forced to industrialize
Jacob Fugger

Renaissance
Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
French Classicalism
the style in 17th-cent. art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance-e.g., the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine
The light, lyrical folk music of the Renaissance.
Madrigal
Corn Laws
1815 tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. Never worked well.
Ludwig von Beethoven
(1779-1827) Is most known for his powerful nine symphonies. He also introduced innovations in the type and number of instruments used in performances.
Vasco da Gama
"Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful during the age of discovery and was the first person to sail from Europe to India, reached Calicut."
Edward VI
The son and successor of Henry VIII. During his reign, England fully enacted the Protestant Reformation.
Treaty of Rome
Six nations of Coal and Steal Community signed to create EEC
Novum Organum
The second of Francis Bacon's books in which he attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered and only required explanation.
Philip of Anjou
named successor to Charles II of Spain
Peace of Augsburg
ends War of Schmalkaldic League, gave nobles the rights to choose the religion of the people on his land
Thirty Year's War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
William and Mary
Raised an army and invaded England; started the Glorious Revolution; gained throne and accepted the Bill of Rights
Bernard de Fontenelle
secretary of the French Royal Academy of Science, popularized science by making it a part of literature, especially for upper-class audiences
Thermidorean Reaction
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror that executed Robespierre
Stadholder
This was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands
Frederick I
Feb. 25, 1713, the first king of PRUSSIA, was the son of FREDERICK WILLIAM, the Great Elector, whom he succeeded as elector of Brandenburg on May 9, 1688. As Elector Frederick III, he demonstrated more interest in cultural affairs and court life than in his government, which he allowed to fall into the hands of corrupt favorites.
Marie Curie
atoms are made up of electrons and protons
2 men greatly influenced by Luther's writings
Zaingli and Calvin
Reichstag
the lower house of the German Diet, or legislature.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
Charles II
Stuart son of Charles I and ruler of England from 1660-1685. Known as the "Merry Monarch" because of his restoration of a more liberal culture after Cromwell's conservative republic.
Battle of the Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality Germany lost the war.
Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm
Ardent followers of Herder who were especially known for their collection of fairy tales.
confederation of the rhine
League of German States (instead of Holy Roman Empire) organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
Progress of the War
WWI progressed so the Germans were winning at first, and then the Americans came and kicked butt. It also was so pointless and full of death
CENTO and SEATO
series of alliances created by the US to prevent the expansion of the Soviet Union, the US allied itself with 42 countries to the East and South of the USSR
Rights of Man
Written by Thomas Paine. It has been seen as a defense of the French Revolution, but it's also an influential work that embodied ideas of liberty and human equality.
Following WWII, Germany was
divided into four zones of occupation under US, British, French, and Russian administration.
I was the leader of the Serb Communist Party who turned the Communist Party and state apparatus into instruments serving Serb nationalist interest, preparing to establish a "Greater Serbia" if Yugoslavia broke up.
Slobodan Milosevic
4 August 1789
On this day, in France members of the National Constituent Assembly took an oath to end feudalism and abandon their privileges.
subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy
the guiding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811.
Maximilian Robespierre • François Marie Isidore de.
Leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror, he was known as an austere and incorruptible man. His laws permitting the confiscation of property and arrest of suspected traitors, many of whom were guillotined, led to his own arrest and execution without trial
I became queen of England in 1558. I managed to successfully maintain peace among the different religious sects in my country, while increasing my country's prestige and power.
Queen Elizabeth I
On the Motion of Mars
A major work of Johannes Kepler. This detailed Kepler's observations which were found considering a heliocentric universe and Brahe's data.
Chief among the reasons for Japanese expansion in the 1930s were:
an expanding population adn severe lack of natural resources on the island nation.
In the early 1920s, Germany's Weimar Republic was crippled by?:

A) the election of Adolf Hitler.
B) its close identification with fascist organizations.
C) the number of elderly people it had to subsidize.
D) a lack of political leadership.
E) the e
D) a lack of political leadership.
Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz
(March 19, 1849 - March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Secretary of State of the Imperial Naval Office, the powerful administrative branch of the Kaiserliche Marine from 1897 until 1916. He is considered to be the founder of the German Imperial navy.
On Knowing and Feelings of the Human Soul
Written by Herder, this essay conveyed Herder's resent for the mechanical explanation of nature so popular with Enlightenment writers.
What were the features of Baroque when speaking of art and music?
In the arts, Baroque is a period as well as the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music.

In music, the Baroque applies to the final period of dominance of imitative counterpoint, where different voices and instruments echo each other but at different pitches, sometimes inverting the echo, and even reversing thematic material.
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