Ap European History First Semester Exam Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Junkers
German/Prussian noble landlords
Erasmus
Northern Renaissance HUMANIST. Criticized corruption in the church. Translated New Testament into Greek and Latin. Inspired religious reform (Martin Luther)
Anti-semitism
ppl against jewish right
Spinoza and Mendelssohn
Jewish Enlightenment writers
Toussaint
__________ L'Ouverture began the revolt that eventually led to Haitian independence. Haiti becomes the first successful assault on colonial gov't.
Romanticism
Reaction in literature, philosophy, religion against the rationality and scientific narrowness of the Enlightenment. Was emotional, fantastical, and full of Sturm und Drang. Inspired German nationalism.
Rousseau
Published "The Social Contract":
1. General will (not the will of everyone)
2. Popular soverignty (people were sovereign)
Renaissance Women
Privileged ones received more EDUCATION, with humanist influence. Some women gained ruling POWER during Renaissance. LEGAL STATUS DECLINED--WORSE than Middle Ages.
Reactionary
Charles X's (France) policies were very __________. During the July Revolution he staged a coup d'etat and restored primogeniture
Frederick the Great
PRUSSIA. Enlightened monarch. Promotion through merit, religious toleration, administrative and economic reforms.
Jacobins
Radical Republican party in French Revolution that displaced Girondins in Legislative Assembly
Mary Wollstonecraft
Woman Enlightenment thinker who defended EQUALITY FOR WOMEN and EDUCATION FOR WOMEN.
Elizabeth I
Elizabethan Era Tudor queen. Established MODERATE PROTESTANTISM in Church of England (39 Articles), avoiding Catholic/Protestant extremism. Naval wars with SPAIN led to defeating SPANISH ARMADA in 1588.
Enlightened absolutism
MONARCHIAL government in which absolutist power was STRENGTHENED at the cost of others.
Bourbons
This French noble family/dynasty was restored to the French throne under a constitutional monarchy after Napoleon
Ulrich Zwingli
Leader of SWISS REFORMATION. Established THEOCRACY in ZURICH. Only the EUCHARIST was symbolic. LITERAL interpretation of Scripture.
Anabaptists
Radical Protestant group that believed only ADULT BAPTISM conformed to Scripture. Established Old Testament theocracy in Münster; allowed polygamy. Rebaptism becomes capital offense in HRE.
Schmalkaldic League
Formed by newly Protestant/Lutheran princes to DEFEND THEMSELVES against HRE's Charles V's efforts to Catholicize Germany. [Augsburg Confesstion/Schmalkaldic Articles stated their beliefs]
Carlsbad Decrees
Outlawed student groups in Germany
Louis XVIII
(Ruled 1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the French Revolution. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land, and established a bicameral(two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers(chosen by the king) and the Chamber of Deputies(chosen by an electorate).
Karl Marx
(1818-1883) He developed the socio-political theory of Marxism. He published many books, such as the "Communist Manifesto." A lot of his books were co-written with his friend Friedrich Engels.
Ausgleich
Also known as the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. It re-established the sovereignity of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from and no longer subject to the Austrian Empire. The territories were governed by separate Parliaments and Prime Ministers. Their unity was maintained through the rule of a single head of state of both of the governments. Armed forces combined with the Emperor-King as commander-in-chief.
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: 1st the clergy, 2nd nobility, and 3rd commoners.almost 300 yrs later The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution
Montesquieu
Believed in a strong, independent upper class; despised absolutism; comparatively studied republics, monarchies, and depotism
Salon
Sponsored by wealthy women, it was where the philosophes could gather and discuss opinions freely.
Enlightenment Women
Mainly SPONSORED SALONS for philosophe discussion. Argued for higher women's EDUCATION since they were stuck in DOMESTIC gender spheres.
French Revolution
1789-99. POLITICAL revolution in which the lesser citizens of France sought to REFORM the gov't and establish a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY. Ripple effect through Europe.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Prussia formally GAINED SILESIA. Austrian throne saved. Prussia becomes one of "Europe's Great powers". Spain/Britain renew slave imports from Treaty of Utrecht.
Baroque Art
Art that applies naturalistic, REALIST styles and contrast with light and dark. Religious AND secular themes. Involved with ABSOLUTISM.
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
France/Austria ally. Britain/Prussia ally.
Official Nationality
Nicholas I's program for Russian Orthodox church to provide basis for morality, education, and intellectual life. Brainwashed Russian children.
Dutch Golden Age
Dutch farming, advanced shipping, unified political leadership, profitable banking, seaborne empire, religious toleration all factors for success. Decline due to death of William III (stadtholder), decline of naval and fishing industry.
English Game Laws
1671-1831. English NOBILITY got exclusive right to hunt what they wanted. CAPITAL OFFENSE for non-nobles, but black market/illegal poaching of game ensued.
Peterloo
A protest leading to the government issuing the Six Acts. The reason for this protest was for the repeal of the Corn Laws, which brought widespread unemployment and postwar economic stress. It was held by urban laborers and supported by radical intellectuals.
Otto von Bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898).
Magyar Revolt
Hungarians in the Austrian Empire demand semi-autonomy in 1848. They are initially granted a degree of independence but are eventually crushed (in '49) by a combination so Austrian and Russian troops.
Burschenshaften
Student associations. (Karl Sand was a member.)
BDFK
(Acronym is German) The Union of German Women's Organizations was founded in 1894. By 1902 it was supporting the right to vote, but mainly wanted to improve women's social conditions.
Parliamentary Act of 1847
10 hour work day
Rococo
an artstyle that embraced lavish and hlight hearted decoration it is associatedc with the oldregime or time of enlightment
Leonardo
a painter, sculptor, architect; he was witty and hansome; scientific-studied everything; painted the Mona Lisa and last supper; never satisfied
Poltava
The deciding battle in which Russia won the Great Northern War
National Assembly
members of THIRD ESTATE broke away from Estates General, and with some of the other Estates members, formed this new legislative body
Stages of Mercantilism
1) Initial European discovery and conquest 2) Mercantile empires and slavery 3) Empires in Asia/Africa etc. 4) Decolonization
Mountain
The name for the Jacobins who had seats high up in the assembly hall in the National Convention
Oliver Cromwell
Led ARMY for Parliament during ENGLISH CIVIL WAR. Established himself as head of a PURITAN REPUBLIC .
Concordat
Napoleon had a _____ with the Roman Catholic Church in which he pronounced Roman Catholicism the majority of French religion. Secretly placed church inferior to state
Renaissance Art
More SECULAR themes, a focus on naturalistic things, study of PERSPECTIVE, CHIAROSCURO. Developed FRESCOES and OIL paints. HUMANISTIC ideals and EMOTION. PATRONIZATION by Renaissance merchants.
Seven Years' War
Frederick II gets aggressive and starts attacking countries left and right. Fought in NORTH AMERICA and INDIA
Enclosure Method
Replaced the OPEN FIELD method in ENGLAND. Lands FENCED to increase PRODUCTION and COMMERCIAL PROFITS.
Emperor
A male monarch that usually is the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Algeria
Algeria was invaded invaded in 1830 by France. France annexed it and turned Algeria into a colony. People were forced to leave their land, which was sold cheaply to French immigrants.
Peace of Augsburg
German Princes had power, 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor, opposed the pope on the issue of lay investiture, he is excommunicated and ends up begging the pope for forgiveness, Henry of Navarre; was protestant but did not wish to anger catholics. Said "Paris is well worth a mass"
Babylonian Captivity
During the DEcline of the roman catholic church Pope Clement V of france moved to Avignon, where french popes conquered for 70 years and where subordinate to the French monarchy. they had administaive and finanical efficency
Old Regime
the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution in 1770
Defenstaration of Prague
Protestants threw 2 of Ferdinand's officials from a window
 
Officially marked the beginning of the Thirty Years' War
Peace of Westphalia
Ended the Thirty Years' War
1. Independent authority of German princes
2. Holy Roman Empire destoryed
3. France could intervene in German affairs
4. Pope could not intervene in German religious affairs
Charles I
First king in European history to be executed by his own subjects. Beginning of the commonwealth/republican governments.
nationalism
Belief that one is part of a distinct nation that has its own language, culture and history. This nation is the primary source of a person's loyalty and sense of identity. Spread through the print culture
Opening of the Atlantic
Allowed EUROPEAN CONQUEST in the Americas. Portugal/Great Britain/Spain/France. Spanish domination in the Americas. Atlantic Exchange of crops, slaves, diseases, valuables etc. MERCANTILISM/
City of Florence
Center of ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. City of DE MEDICIs.
Ivan the Terrible
Aggressive Russian ruler who had a very violent "TIME OF TROUBLES". His death marked the beginning of the ROMANOV DYNASTY.
Renaissance Family Life
Women had to make themselves pleasing to men. Marriages more on ROMANCE...more prostitution. POOR had NUCLEAR FAMILIES while RICH had EXTENDED FAMILIES. DOWRIES IMPORTANT.
Bread prices
18th century prices of this major food staple steadily ROSE with POPULATION GROWTH. Bad for the POOR but benefited LANDOWNERS. Economic cause of FRENCH REVOLUTION.
Northwestern European Household
Kids lived in households until teens, then moved out for job, then left home and got their own families, having kids ASAP. Servants lived with them and was very important.
Hundred Days
Name given to the 3 months that Napoleon escaped his first exile, returned to France, and attempted to rule.
Cardinal Mazarin
CHIEF MINISTER for Louis XIII and XIV. Laid groundwork for Louis XIV's ABSOLUTISM. Controlled France for Louis XIV when Louis was a kid and provoked the FRONDE
T. H. Huxley
Chief spokesman for Darwin - "Darwin's Bulldog" who got embroiled in controversy between Church and science. Specifically, represented Darwin's findings at debate with Bishop of Oxford. Obviously, theory didn't square with Bible.
Four Ordinances (1830)
1: Restricted freedom of press. 2: Limited franchises to aristocracy only. 3: Called for new elections. 4: Dissolved recently elected Chamber of Deputies.
Jacobins French Catholic Church
Who were the Jacobins?
They executed many people and were made up of the National Assembly (Mostly wealthy bourgeoisie.) They got rid of the Catholice Church, which was restored by Napoleon. Napoleon made people pledge loyalty to the state first, then the pope second.
Potato
became a stable crop for the poor in many countries
Edict of nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants GRANTED HUGENOT LIMITED TOLERATION
Table of Ranks
Established by PETER THE GREAT to draw NOBILITY INTO STATE SERVICE. Equated social status with rank in bureaucracy/military instead of lineage.
Catherine de Medici
Mother of 3 sucky French kings and CONTROLLED THEM ALL. Fought to maintain CATHOLIC DOMINANCE in France. Ordered the killings of St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Goods in the Atlantic Exchange
3 major economic components: mining, agriculture, and shipping. Also exchanged sugar, gold, silver, slaves, tobacco, disease, spices, religion etc.
Greek Revolution of 1821
The only revolution that was an exception to the Troppau Protocol due to the fact that it was against the Ottomans.
Concert of Europe
Formulated in 1815 as a mechanism to enforce the decisions of the Congress of Vienna. (The First Congress took place in 1818 at the Aix-la Chapelle.)
Goal of 19th Century Liberals
To ameliorate the devastating social conditions.
Liberalism and Liberals
The basis of this movement stems from ideas of liberty and equality.
Aristole & Ptolemy
men who came up with the ptolemaic universe and the idea that the earth was the center
War of the Spanish Succession
Spanish Habsburg king Charles II gave Spanish territories to Louis XIV's grandson, and the other countries feared European domination by Louis XIV. French poorly equipped in war against England.
Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829
This act ended the Angelican Church's stranglehold on British political life. It allowed wealthy Irishmen to vote.
Decembrist Revolt of 1825
The instance in which the army was to take the oath of allegiance to Nicholas I, but the Moscow regiment refused and Nicholas I ordered the attack of the insurgents ending with the death of 60.
1820 revolutions in Spain and Naples resulting in intervention
Spain: A civil war between royalists and liberals. France intervened, trying to restore the Bourbon, Ferdinand VII to the throne in Spain. Spain and Naples alienated the bulk of the population and alarmed conservative leaders, thus causing intervention.
Womens role in the Scienctifc revolution
Women were assitanct to men the only women really involed hands on is mary Wollenstonecraft
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