AP European History ID terms Chapters Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Quattrocento
The 1400's.
Zemstvos
Local assemblies in Russia.
Rabelais
French Satirical author. "Gargantua" and "Pantagruel".
Regicide
The killing of the king.
Reichstag
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.
New Model Army
Created by Cromwell.
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Empiricism
Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
Physiocrats
Opponenets of mercantilism and Colbertism in particular. Led by Francois Quesnay. Felt the need for a strong independent republic.
Totalitarianism
Twentieth century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture in the interest of the state.
Trafalgar
(October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed by invasion of Britain now became impossible.
Medici
aristocratic Italian family of powerful merchants and bankers who ruled Florence in the 15th century
Zollverein
Economic custom union of German states, founded in 1818 by Prussia. Eliminated internal tariffs.
Whig
British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.
Baroque
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550-1700, emphsizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Pazzi Conspiracy
Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici's.
Vernacular
Everyday language of a specific nation.
Magyars
In 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the Magyar peasantry and the minority population.
Junkers
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
James Hargreaves
About 1705 invented spinning jenny.
Hohenzollern
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
Galileo Galilei
Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter's moons. Wrote "Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World".
Inductive Reasoning
Baconian empiricism. Based on speculations on other situations.
Leviathan
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
Muscovy
A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscos, it was founded c.1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.
Berlin Decree
1806-issued by Napoleon; instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Russification
Policy imposing Russian customs and traditions on other people.
Constitutionalism
Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
Romanovs
Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until 1917.
Talleyrand
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
Sovereignty
Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.
Castlereagh
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
Sir Walter Raleigh
(1552?-1618) English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
William Shakespeare
A well-known English theatrical playwright (1564-1616) whose work includes Much Ado About Nothing, Love's Labor's Lost, The Tempest, The Twelfth Night, and many more. His plays weren't set in contemporary England, but the problems of his time were reflected in his work.
Levellers
During period of Commonwealth Cromwell faced extremists in all diretions - each with own remedies for country. Spokesman John Lilburne, appealed to natural rights of Englishmen. Asked for a nearly universal manhood suffrage, equality of representation, a written constitution, and subordination of Parliament to a reformed body of voters. wanted the "Level" the playing field for everyone.
Sir Isaac Newton
1643-1727. English physicist, mathmetician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian. Published work in 1687 describing universal gravitation, and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics.
Henry IV
(r.1574-1589)A Huguenot leader who became king of France when a crazy monk killed King Henry III. Converted to Catholicism and stated that "Paris was worth a Mass." Issued the Edict of Nantes and helped unify France.
humanism
a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Indulgences
Selling of these was common practice by the Catholic church, corruption that led to reformation.
Jeremy Bentham
Believed that public problems should be dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greated number. Wrote "Principles of Morals and Legislation". Majority rules.
The Restoration
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established an Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
Louis Kossuth
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
Utopian Cosialism
Ideal society based on socialist ideals; Louis Blanc and Charles Fourrier.
Usury
The practice of lending money for interest.
Vasco da Gama
Sailed from Portugal for India.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule.
Panslavism
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Robert Boyle
(1627-1691) Physicist, nothing can be known beyond all doubt.
William Laude
Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission.
Robert Owen
Scottish spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.
Rococo
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portaits.
Deductive Reasoning
Descartes, doubt everything and use reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Friar Girolamo Savonarola
(1452-1498) Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
French Classicism
Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV.
Castiglione
Wrote "The Courtier" which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Dvorianie
Established by Peter the Great, they received land and control of the peasants.
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.
Henry Cort
Refined pig iron, puddling furnace, heavy rolling mills.
Guillotine
Fast and relatively humane; used for mass executions.
Leon Alberti
Some of this famous Italian Renaissance architect's work include the Palazzo Rucellai and Santa Maria Novella in Florence, Italy . He also suggested that the layout of the cities be changed so that there would be areas to play, hold military exercises, etc., suggested piazzas, open public squares.
predestination
doctrine of John Calvin that adhered to the idea that each person's fate is predetermined by God
Cardinal Mazarin
the successor of Cardinal Richelieu who helped him build a centralized government. he crushed the Fronde who were trying to threaten the centralized government
Lorenzo Ghiberti
This Renaissance Florentine is famous for sculpting the bronze doors for the Baptistry in Florence dedicated to St. John. He developed techniques of three dimensional sculpture.
Huldrych Zwingli
(1484-1531) a Swiss Catholic priest who rejected more of the Catholic teachings than Luther. Believed that the Eucharist was only a symbol to remind us of the last Supper.His ideas are followed in the Reformed (protestant) Churches.
Tycho Brahe
Danish Astronomer who produced large amounts of astromatical data but rejected heliocentrism.
Michel de Montaigne
(1533-1592) A resigned French magistrate who wrote about the need for tolerance and open-mindedness. "All that is certain is that nothing is certain."
Cossacks
free groups and outlaw armies of peasants who fled the tsar and service nobility
Andreas Vesalius
(1514-1564) A Flemish scientist who challenged the traditional knowledge of the human anatomy, which had been based off the Greek physician Galen.
Cardinal Richelieu
The French monarchy's chief minister (1585-1642). He believed in state over religion and joined the French and Swedish forces against the Hapsburgs.
Sir Francis Drake
English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships: 'singed the king beard'; involved in the armada.
Sphere of Influence
In international politics, the claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory.
Revolutionary Calendar
Created by the National Convention, it was established after the French Revolution; day one was the first day of the French Republic.
Natural Law
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
Joseph Bonaparte
Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.
Jules Mazarin
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government.
Botticelli
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Factory Act 1833
Created factory workday for children between 9-13, to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9. Factory owners establish schools. Destroyed family unit.
The Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
Louis XIII
Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state.
Theocracy
A community in which the state is subordinate to the church.
Thomas More
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society.
Bishop Bossuet
principle advocate of divine right of kings during reign of Louis XIV-believed divine right meant that king was placed on throne by God, and therefore owed his authority to no man or group
Christopher Columbus
Italian mariner (1451-1506) who in the service of Spain led expeditions across the Atlantic, reestablishing contact between the peoples of the Americas and the Old World and by doing so initiated the slave trade and the Atlantic system.
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649.
Philip II
King of Spain during the Spanish Armada. Married to Mary who was Henry VIII's daughter whose nickname was Bloody Mary because she killed so many protestants when she came to the throne in England.
John Milton
1608-1674; Paradise Lost (epic 12 part poem); Christian works, very religious (explored new view of God), modern ideas like divorce and freedom of Press, expressed political and religious views in his works (english civil war influences him)
Francesco Petrarch
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe. Believed that individuals could reform themselves and society thru education. Martin Luther stole some of his ideas and was caught in the crossfire during the Reformation, which ruined his reputation.
Francis Xavier
led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan
James II
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
Don Quixote
novel authored by Miguel de Cervantes, perhaps the greatest work of Spanish literature. A survey of the entire fabric of Spanish society that can be read on several levels: as a burlesque of chivalric romances; as an exploration of conflicting views (idealistic vs. realistic) of life and of the world.
Hussites
Followers of Jan Hus who called for reforms of the Catholic Church. They had crusades called against them, but the crusades were unsuccessful. They were granted religious freedom in exchange for being loyal to the church.
Louis XIV
King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child.
The Communist Manifesto
Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; basis of Socialism.
Sun King
Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development.
Ancien Regime
The old order before the Revolution in France.
Lorenzo de Medici
r(1469-1492) The Medici's were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Frederick William the Great Elector
Man who made modern Prussia.
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Catherine de Medici
Henry II's widow who tried desperately to preserve royal authority; often helpless because the religious conflict intensified the factional struggle for power between the Guises and the Bourbons, both close to the monarchy and hope to inherit the throne one day; switched sides whenever one party became too powerful; may have approved St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
Mary Stuart
queen of Scotland from 1542 to 1567, as a Catholic she was forced to abdicate in favor of her son and fled to England where she was imprisoned by Elizabeth I; when Catholic supporters plotted to put her on the English throne she was tried and beheaded.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Hugo Grotius
a Dutch journalist who called for an international code based on natural law. Believed that one body of rules could reduce the dealing of governments to a system of reason and order
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, 1572.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote "On the Dignity of Man" which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.
Revival of antiquity
The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Romans.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Northwest Passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Wat Tyler's Rebellion
Refusal to pay taxes to fund the Hundred Years War, Death knell to serfdom in England, peasant revolt in England.
Peace of Westphalia
Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
The Royal Society of London
Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.
The Spanish Inquisition
A ruthless set of rules to get control of Protestants, Muslims, and Jews in Spain.
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