AP European History Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Russian noble.
1920s - 1945
modern working class
Left-wing, revolutionary Marxists headed by Lenin. (Majority men).
arrested political opponants, disbanded unions, conroled schools, made vatican own state,
John Paul II elected pope
French philosophe, believed in religious toleration, questioning authority, and wrote "Candide" which is a satire
radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin, seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution
Germany in its Deep humiliation
Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
Triple Alliance
Germany, Italy, Austria, and Hungary
These two northern duchies with significant German populations had been ruled by the kings of Denmark. In an effort to prevent the states from being consolidated into the nation of Denmark, Prussia teamed up with Austria and beat the Danes.
Girolamo Savonarola
This radical Dominican preacher convinces most the fearful Florentines that the French king's arrival was a long-delayed and fully justified vengeance on their immortality.
A theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that is based upon the principle of "the greatest happiness for the greatest number." Bentham argued that this principle should be applied to each nation's government, economy, and judicial system.
Rene Descartes
French philosopher who doubted everything except existence and then used deductive reasoning to establish scientific laws. He discovered analytic geometry that provided scientists with an important new tool. He wrote a book based on deductive reasoning, Discourse on Method. He is significant because his use of deductive reasoning and discovery of analytic geometry developed a better way in obtaining knowledge about the world.
Recovery and study of classical authors & writings.
first northern painter to master Italian Ren. techniques of proportion, perspective, and modeling; painted Adam and Eve
Treaty Tehran
wanted American-British invasion of continent through France to meet at the dividing line in Germany; Germany was partitioned
Pierre Bayle
Protestant, leading critic of traditional religious attitudes - attacked superstition, religious intolerance, dogmatism, believed that the rational principles of textual criticism should be applied to the Bible, skepticism about religion & secularization of thought
Suicide attacks by bomb-laden Japanese planes
Edourd Bernstein
a German social democratic theoretician and politician, a member of the SPD, and the founder of evolutionary socialism and revisionism
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626)Scientist who created the scientific method and used inductive reasoning
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
These thinkers believed that there were universal laws in all aspects of life, not only in science.
British Colonies
Egypt, Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho, Northern Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania
Vladimir Lenin
He led the Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution in Russia in 1917. He would lead the Communists to victory in the Civil War and would rule until his death in 1924.
"General Will"
Betterment of the community. Founded by Rousseau, he felt that this determines a country's course in economics and politics.
Ferdinand Magellan
1512","A Portuguese sailor in Spanish service, lead the first expedition to circumnavigate the globe."
Who was Alexander I?
The Tsar of Russia.
King Louis XIV's palace during French absolutism rule
Compagnie des Indes
France's joint-stock company that traded with India. The French equivalent to the British East India Company. Necessary in order to stay in competition.
"to tell it like it is"
Gorbachev's motto
Emphasis on the unique & creative personally (personality?).
Peace of Augsburg
1555, Formally acknowledged the division of Christianity, and allowed German rulers to determine the religion of their peoples.
Boxer Rebellion
A rebellion of traditionalist Chinese people who wanted to throw the foreigners out
Nobility of Sword
Descendants of original medieval nobility
assets available for use in the production of further assets: in Britain, this took the form of money invested in new industrial machines and the factories needed to house them
plantation economies
the economic system stretching between Chesapeake Bay and Brazil that produced crops, especially sugar, cotton, and tobacco, using slave labor on large estates.
John Wyclif
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384)
British women who lobbied and agitated for the right to vote in the early twentieth century
Forced recruitment into the army to meet the needs of the war
Wilhelm I
King of Prussia. oversaw German unification. hires Bismark to build him a huge army
Francis Bacon

Scientific Revolution
(1561-1626)English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
Ulrich Zwingli was responsible for the Protestant conversion of?:
I was imprisoned during Stalin's reign and emerged in 1956 to head the Polish government.
william laud
archbishop of Canterbury and opponent of Puritanism: executed for treason.
Long Parliament
Parliament convened by Charles I in 1640. It officially lasted twenty years and was involved in the civil war against Charles I.
Adolphe Thiers
a French politician and historian. He was a prime minister under King Louis-Philippe of France. Following the overthrow of the Second Empire he again came to prominence as the French leader who suppressed the revolutionary Paris Commune of 1871. From 1871 to 1873 he served initially as Head of State (effectively a provisional President of France), then provisional President
El Greco
He was a prominent painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. He applied mannerism and the-style-of' the Venetian Renaissance.
Henry IV's chief minister. He was a successful administrator he subsized the Company for Trade with the Indies. Began a countrywide highway system
Kubla Khan
A poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge which takes the name of the Mongol and Chinese emperor.
A community in which the state is subordinate to the church.
national convention
formed in the French Revolution by Tennis Court Oath, created constitution, later established National Assembly
Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind
Friedrich Nietzsche
German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
wanted Social Democrats to be a mass electorate; part of Marxist Social Democratic Party; would cooperate temporarily if needed.
France received the right to work in the coal mines of this for fifteen years from Germany as compensation.
March Revolution
first stage of the Russian Revolution of 191, ended the Romanov dynasty (Nicholas II), working-class strikes in Petrograd led to the Duma establishing a provisional, non-Communist government under Alexander Kerensky; the Provisional government was an alliance between liberals and socialists who wanted to produce reform
nine German princes who had the right to elect the Holy Roman Emperor
East India Companies
British, French, and Dutch trading companies that obtained government monopolies of trade to India and Asia; acted independently in their regions.
Great Fear
The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Dreyfus Affair
a divisive case in which Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted of treason. The Catholic Church sided with the anti-semites against Dreyfus; because of this, the French government severed all ties between the state and church.
Jacques Cartier
A Frenchman who made several voyages between 1534 and 1541, exploring the St. Lawrence region of Canada.
Leopold II
1865-1909; King of Belgium, sent Henry Stanley to Africa.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe
The Ptolemaic conception of the universe was also known as?:
the geocentric theory.
Louis XVI
King of France-executed for treason by the National Convention in 1793-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
James Watt
Scot who invented the steam engine in 1869.
Nicholas II
The last czar of Russia, he abdicated in 1917 and was murdered in 1918 along with his family. Though generally regarded as a decent man, he was an extremely weak and ineffective leader.
Jan Van Eck
Widely considered the greatest of the painters from the north countries. Attributed with the creation of oil painting.
Richard III
The brother of Edward IV, he usurped the throne from Edward's son. The new Tudor dynasty portrayed him as a villain who had murdered Edward's sons.
The Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of Spanish Succession
Portobello Fair
A major trading fair that occurs in the New World Spanish port, Portobello. According to the Treaty of Utrecht, one English ship was allowed to trade their each time the fair occured.
Tennis Court Oath
3rd Estate promised not to disband until a new constitution was written
Prince William of Orange
(1572-1584) Leader of the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands.
Mary I
This was the queen who reverted back to Catholicism in England for five years and during this reign, she executed many Protestants
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She is Protestant, but she doesn't like people that were too radical on either side.
Peasants' War
when a group of German peasants took up arms against their wealthy landowners; Luther did not approve
This island was the site of the US's first invasion of Japanese-held territory. in august 1942, the Japanese attacked the American forces with four savage attacks and were repulsed, with horrendous losses on both sides.
The Catholic League
a Radical Catholic group under Henry Guise created to destroy the Huguenots and put a good Catholic (Guise) on the throne.
State of Nature
Depiction of conditions in absence of political power of authority. Hobbes-war of all against all, life of man "poor solitary, nasty, brutish, and short" anarchy
Lorenzo de Medici

(1469-1492) The Medici’s were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
This is the belief that there is an ideal form of every object but it exists in another plane. It was introduced by Plato (hence the name) and people who believed in it reflected this philosophy by trying to reproduce the beauty of the soul through art.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany
Seven Years' War
War from 1756-63. Began as the "French and Indian War" in North America. Evolved into a war on the European continent resulting from the alliance structure developed in the Diplomatic Revolution and ending with Russia's surprise switch to an alliance with Prussia and a confirmation of Prussia's hold on Silesia.
was a term referring to a kind of 'New Christian' in Spain and Portugal. They were Muslims who were exiled to North Africa in 1610
In 1960, the __________ was shot down over the Soviet Union.
U-2 spy plane
Battle of Poltava
in 1709 was within the Great Northern War between Russia and Sweden. Peter the Great's improved army helped win this battle that dragged on until 1721. This battle is significant because it allowed Russia to be recognized as a major power.
Peninsular War
This war was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's Grand Empire after the Spanish rebelled against France for its independence
Act of Union 1801 (Ireland)
United english and irsih par.
Irish developed sense of national self consciousness
Detestd Brit landlords and burdensome rents
Taff Vale Decision
commonly known as the Taff Vale case is a formative case in UK labour law. It held that at common law, unions could be liable for loss of profits to employers that were caused by taking strike action. It was made with outrage by the labour movement, was a central cause in the establishment of the UK Labour Party and was soon reversed by the Trade Disputes Act 1906.
florentine platonic academy
2nd half 15th ct upsurge of interest in works of plato. informal discussion group. Cosimo d medici became its patron and ordered translation of plato's dialogues by marsilio ficino.
League of Nations
Allies worked out terms for peace with Germany, 1919, precursor to the United Nations.
The slogan of the Menshevik leader, Alexander Kerensky.
"Justice, Equality, and Liberty"
The July Revolution ended in rebels...
installed Louis Phillipe as what became know as the bourgeois, or July Monarchy
Ricardo (Iron Law of Wages)
This man stated that because of population growth, the wages would always sink to subsistence level
National Council of French Women
An umbrella organization for all of the feminist organizations in France.
Yalta Conference
On the Black Sea; the Big Three met in February 1945 in southern Russia; it was agreed that Germany would be divided into zones of occupation and would pay heavy reparations to the soviet Union in the form of agricultural and industrial goods; when the Big Three met in 1945 at Yalta in southern Russia they agreed that east European governments were to be freely elected but pro-soviet.
19th Century Birth and Death Rates
Death rates declined as medical care and health increased, birth rates also increasing due to medical revolution
Development of Anglo-German rivalry & Naval arms race
This rivalry developed because of the increasing naval race, and because Germany was becoming increasingly militaristic
The Spanish empire in America was characterized by?:
the introduction of a manorial-like system, the encomienda.
Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences
Written by Rousseau, this contented that the process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupted human nature.
Between the 16c and 17c, peasants in Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, and Russia?:
were granted democratic control over village life.
What events made the US join the war?
1. A total naval blockade stopped the US from sending ships to Germany with cargo 2. German U-Boats sunk Lusitania carrying Americans 3.Huge amount of money US owed Britain 4. Zimmerman Note.
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