AP European Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
NATO formed

The 1400’s.
Russian national legislature
Romantic nationalist Italian republican who unites Southern Italy
Marxists followers of Lenin
civilian representatives appointed by European nations in China
Crane Brinton
Anatomy of a REvolution
"Calvinists;" Protestant; half of French nobility
Russian councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
18th century Protestant revival called
Opponents of mercantilism and Colbertism in particular. Led by Francois Quesnay. Felt the need for a strong independent republic.
German word meaning "living space." The Nazis claimed the German deserved more room to expand and used this a a justification for invading neighboring nations.
Fifth Republic in France under DeGaulle
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789 by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
(1313-1375) Wrote teh Decameron which tells about ambitious merchant, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on long-range missiles, bombers, and nuclear warheads.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
John Cockerill
Aggressive businessman who established a highly profitable industrial plant in South Belgium; pirated British innovations
a type of fast-moving warfare developed by the Germans in World War II, literally means "lightning war"
meaning minority. term Lenin applied to the majority moderate faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party opposed to him and the Bolsheviks
Berlin Decree
1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Dutch painter turned away from materialistic success, refuse follow contemporaries. Depict biblical scenes. Great protestant painter.
British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.
This belief emphasizes that human reason can uncover the mysteries and laws of the universe. It was the dominant philosophy during the Scientific Revolution.
James Hargreaves
About 1705 invented spinning jenny
Andreas Vesalius
Flemish scientist who pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body and its systems.
Charles Dickens
Dickens (1812-1870) was one of Britain's greatest novelists. His works often sought to show the suffering of the poor in industrial Britain. His works include Oliver Twist and David Copperfield.
Long- term process where society and societal values relied less on the influence of the church.
Schmalkaldic War
1549-1555: Religious civil war between Nothern Germany (included Denmark, Sweden, and some HRE princes) and France against Charles V (Catholic Hapsburgs)
life is "nasty, brutish, & short"; necessity of absolutism; Leviathan
- policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail GORBACHEV in mid 1980's
- resulted in new openess of speech, reduced censorship, and greater criticism of Communist Party policies
Leading family of the Holy Roman Empire who ruled Austria
militaty dictator of Italy, comes to power in 1922
Nuremberg Laws
(1935) Measures that excluded Jews from white-collar professions and from marriage and habitation with non-Jews.
A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members
Francisco Franco
won Spanish Civil War; well-liked; good as far as fascist dictators go
The Decameron
Written by Boccaccio in 1353. Describes the effects of the plegue in gruesome detail.
the belief (especially of John Calvin) that everything that happens has been predetermined divinely, especially who reaches salvation (the elect)
A French labor tax requiring peasants to work on roads, bridges, and canals
Indirect Rule
colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
Thermidorian Reaction
extended Political Reign of Terror. Goal was increasingly an ideal democratic republic where justice would reign and there would be neither rich nor poor. their lofty goal was unrestrained despotism and guillotine. In Mar. 1794, to the horror of many sans-culorres, Robespierre's Terror wiped out many angry men who had been criticizing Robespierre for being soft on the wealthy. it recalled the early days of the Revolution
Soviet Union started a period of stagnation. Saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous threat
Decembrist Revolt
Uprising in Russia mainly soldiers soon suppressed-first manifestation of the modern revolutionary movement inspired by ideology.
people placed emphasis on
moral and administrative reform
He was the favorite classical author of Renaissance scholars.
Discourse on Methods
Descartes (1677) espoused deductive reasoning.
Jonas Salk
American doctor who invented the polio vaccine in 1953. Polio crippled and killed millions worldwide, and the successful vaccine virtually eliminated the scourge.
United Naitons
During World War II, Allied leaders decided to establish an international organization devoted to promoting peace. The United Nations was formally established in 1945.
Sir Francis Bacon
He was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist but is best known for leading the scientific revolution with his new observation and experimentation' theory which is the way science has been conducted ever since. He was knighted in 1603.
Followers of John Huss who called for reforms of the Catholic Church. They had crusades called against them, but the crusades were unsuccessful. They were granted religious freedom in exchange for being loyal to the church.
Cardinal Richelieu
Adviser to Louis XIII. He encouraged the king to adopt absolutist policies. Laid the foundations for the political acendancy of the French monarchy.
Samson Agonistes
Written by John Milton, this recounts the biblical story of Samson
Catholic Reformation
movement in which the Baroque style flourished
goal of society was to bring about greatest happiness for the greatest number
Washington Conference
(1921) Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States.
Was a German philosopher who wrote and influenced many others (like Marx) with his writings. He is most often characterized by his 'three-step process' of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis.
These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
Organic Statute
Issued by Nicholas, this declared that Poland was part of the Russian Empire. It did guarantee some Polish liberties. Unfortunately, the delegated liberties were ignored.
Reinsurance Treaty
Treaty between bismarck and russia in 1887 so germany wouldn't have a 2 front war. wilhelm fired bismarck, removed treaty, russia allied with france
Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV's chief minister - carried on Cardinal Richelieu's policies, but as a foreigner, was disliked by French citizens
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
Anglo-Japanese Alliance
Japanese gain an alliance in western world>>ready to confront russia
1/3 of the Deputies in the Legislative Assembly of the Second French Republic favored the line of Louis Philippe.
Society of Jesus
the largest Roman Catholic religious order, whose members are called Jesuits, was founded by Saint IGNATIUS LOYOLA. Professed members are bound by a vow of obedience to the pope. When the COUNTER-REFORMATION was launched, the Jesuit order was its driving force.
Domestic System
The beginings of the factory system, where goods were made in the home
Francois Marie Arquet-Voltaire
Wrote Candide*took three days, satire of French Government and Society
his greatest weapon was his mastery of language; words spread by advent of printing
In France, this encouraged business interests, kept taxes low, and sometimes maintained high tariffs that protected special interests, therefore not following the trend of laissez faire government.
The July Monarchy
Young Italy
An assciation under the leadership of Mazzini that urger the unification of the country
Winston Churchill
A noted british Prime Minister who led britain throughout most of world war ii and along with roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. he predicted an iron curtain that would separate communist europe from the rest of the west. Speeches after retirement..
Anwar Sadat
Egyptian leader who began a policy of cooperation with the United States and Western Europe. Under his leadership, Egypt was the first Middle Eastern nation to recognize Israel. He was assassinated in 1981 by a group of fundamentalist officers.
Martin Luther
Was a German friar who, tormented by his own religion, became the spokesperson for his generation and his reform movement sparked explosive protests.
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Revolutions b/c of shortage of food in Russia-->troops called to disperse, but stroops join strikers. This then takes over.
provisional Government
New Economic Policy
A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to stimulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. The New Economic Policy utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.
The Rival Blocs: Germany's decision
Commercial rivalry in markets, German's decision to add large fleet of battleships heightened tensions.
Aldo Moro
Former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978.
This was the working class in that was constantly battling against the bourgeois factory owners
Georges Haussmann
This was the man who planned the reconstruction of Paris
Public Health act of 1875
Prohibited construction of new buildings w/o running water and internal drainage system.
In Britain.
protective tariff
a tax on imported goods that is intended to protect a nation's businesses from foreign competition, these were used in the Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe to prevent fledgling industries from being destroyed by cheap British imports
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
A collective security agreement created in 1954. The US, Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Pakistan, and the Philippines were involved.
Illyrian Provinces
East coast of the Adriatic. This was part of the Grand Empire and administered almost like departments of France. Included Trietse and the Dalmatian coast.
Cecil Rhodes
Burn in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a finacier, statesman, and empire bulider with a philosophy of mystical imperialism
Lorenzo de Medici

(1469-1492) The Medici’s were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
British philosopher who published On Liberty(1859), advocating indivdual rights against overnment intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights
Use of pig fat to grease rifle cartridges that was against the religious beliefs of Indian troops in the British army, resulted in British suppression of the revolt as well as the end of the rule of the East India Company and establishment of direct rule
Sepoy Rebellion
Crimean War
Fought over who would get power if the Ottoman Empire collapsed; Russia wanted parts, but Britain didn't want them getting the land. When Russia occupied Romania GB declared war and gained several allies, Austrai became politically isolated, and Russia realized that they needed to modernize. It was the war covered by Newspaper Correspondents
Poor Laws of 1597
Throughout the 14th to 16th centuries the wealth of Britain was underwritten by the wool trade and in the quest for this wealth, large tracts of land were turned over to sheep farming. This eventually led to an underclass of dispossessed poor.
Letters of Obscure Men
Rising from the Reuchlin Affair, this piece was a merciless satire of monks and Scholastics to which von Hutten contributed.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundrary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Guise family convinced the crown to eliminate the Huguenots and resulted in this massacre.
Corn Law (1815)
Raised a tariff for corn and other widely harvested produce in order to protect British corn. Very helpful for those in Britain who owned lots of land.
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
Protestant hero of the Thirty Years War; France supported him because they wanted to keep Germany split up.
March on Versailles
On October 5, 1789, a march on Versailles forced King Louis XVI (1754-93) to capitulate and accept a new legal structure that would abolish privilege and deprive him of any meaningful legislative power
Second Treatise of Government

Scientific Revolution
Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.
He came from the Borgia family and was the most infamous Renaissance Pope.
Alexander VI
What were the gains of Austria?
Lost the Austrian Netherlands and gained Venetia and Lombardy.
Decleration of the Rights of Man
Written by the National Convention- declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Giuseppe Garibaldi and the Red Shirts
former Italian supporter of Mazzini, democratic republican whose men were called the Red Shirts, assigned to stop a revolt in Southern Italy against the Bourbon kings of the Two Sicilies and later marched up the peninsula conquering provinces, gave control of his army and his lands to Cavour to prevent a civil war
Balence of Power
no one should be able to defeat any two countries combined
Catherin de Medici
the wife of Henry II of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons
James I of England
thought that he was he had the divine right to rule and claimed that the main function of Parliament was simply to give the king advice
The major cause of the growing weakness of Spain and Portugal after 1600 was the?:
failure to find productive investments with profits from New World colonies.
Why'd Cavour send troops to block Garibaldi from this march?
Didn't want Garibaldi to lead Italy over the Piedmont
For England, the primary result of the 16c wars with Spain was that it?:
assured her national independence and promoted an intense national spirit.
During the 100 Year War, English kings were supported by some French barons because
The wanted to stop the French Monarchy’s centralizing efforts
/ 107

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online