AP GOV - Congress Flashcards

United States Congress
Terms Definitions
bicameral
two houses
logrolling
legislative practice wherein reciprocal agreements are made between legislators, usually in voting for or against a bill
Crack
Dispersing persons into multiple districts to try to win majority in all
conflict resolution
legislative org 'problem'; stable coatlitions, party v party instead of person v person
earmarking
in government budgeting, the practice of allocating specific revenue sources to specific programs, such as gasoline taxes to highways
seniority
system under which committee chairs are awarded to members who have the longest continuous service on the committee
cloture
a procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate
Caucus
An association of Congress members created to advance political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest.
majority-minority districts
Congressional districts designed to make it easier for minority citizens to elect minority representatives. These districts are drawn so that the majority of their voters are minorities.
sub-committees for research
committee refers desirable bills to
oversight
the process by which congress follows up on laws it has enacted to ensure that they are being enforced and administered in the way Congress intended
Congress
A meeting place of representatives of local constituencies who can initiate, modify, approve, or reject laws. It also shares supervision of government agencies with the executive.
Perks
A short form of perquisites, meaning "fringe benefits of office." Among the perks of political office for high-ranking officials are limousines, expense accounts, free air travel, fancy offices, and staff assistants.
politico
lawmaker who attempts to balance the basic elements of the trustee, delegate, and partisan roles
agency representation
the type of representation according to which representatives are held accountable to their constituents if they fail to represent them properly. That is, constituents have the power to hire and fire their representatives
incumbency advantage
The electoral advantage a candidate enjoys by virtue of being an incumbent
simple resolution
stays within chamber; adopted to cover matters affecting only one house of Congress
concurrent resolution
expression of opinion without force of law that requires the approval of both houses but not the pres
redistricting
The redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within each state.
Trustee
An official who is expected to vote independently based on his or her judgment of the circumstances; one interpretation of the role of the legislator.
double-tracking
a procedure to keep the Senate going during a filibuster in which the disputed bill is shelved temporarily so that the Senate can get on with other business
Reynolds v. Sims
Ruled that state legislature districts needed to be equal in population.
majority party
in both The House Of Representatives and the Senate, the political party to which more than half the members belong
open rule
the provisions by the House Rules committee that permits floor degbate and the addition of amendments to the a bill
Sequential referral
A congressional process by which a Speaker may send a bill to a second committee after a first is finished acting
Whip
Assistants to the floor leaders in the House and Senate, responsible for monitoring and marshalling votes
senatorial courtesy
The tradition observed in the Senate in which that body refuses to confirm an appointment to a federal office when the candidate is personally obnoxious to either senator from the candidate's state.
second budget resolution
A resolution passed by Congress in September that sets "binding" limits on taxes and spending for the following fiscal year.
substantive representation
A term coined by Hannah Pitkin to refer to the correspondence between representatives' opinions and those of their constituents.
term limits
laws that limit the number of terms elected officials can serve
conference committee
a joint committee created to work out a compromise for House and Senate versions of a piece of legislature
organizational view of representation
The theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes that members make voting decisions to please fellow members and obtain their goodwill. Such behavior is possible since constituents seldom know how their representatives vote. Members vote by following cues provided by colleagues.
franking, scare, war, credit, case, pork, position
incumbency advantages besides name recognition (FSWCCPP)
House Rules Committee
An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bills (except revenue, budget, and appropriations bills) coming from a HOuse committee before they go to the full House
What is a rider?
its added to a bill to circumvent influence president
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
What are qualifications to be us rep?
be 25, us citizen, and state resident
censure
expresses disapproval; requires51% vote; no effect but public shaming
9
years in U.S. for Senate
Standing committees
Permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area.
gerrymandering
drawing of distric boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
mark-up
Revisions and additions to legislation made by committees and subcommittees. These changes are not part of a bill unless approved by the house of which the committee is a part.
reapportinment
when a state's population decreases, they must reapportion meaning to redistribute seats, or lose seats in the House
Private bill
Legislation that deals only with specific matters rather than with general legislative affairs
commerce and "necessary&proper" clauses
implied powers of Congress
franking
A policy that enables members of Congress to send material through the mail by substituting their facsimile signature (frank) for postage.
Oversight power
..., the responsibility to question executive branch officials to see whetehr their agencies are complying with the wishes of Congress and are conducting their programs efficiently.
pigeonhole
Put a bill aside and ignore it
professional legislature
a legislature whose members serve full-time for multiple terms
joint resolution
a formal expression of congressional opinion that must be approved by both houses of Congress and by the president. Those proposing a constitutional amendment do not need the signature of the president
credit claiming
according to David Mayhew, one of three primary activities undertaken by Congressmen to increase reelection probability; can claim that he drafted legislation that was written by lobbyist/staff
closed rule
an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor
Impeachment
power delegated to the Houes in the Consittuion to charge the president, vice preisent, or other civil officers including federal judges with "treason, bribery, or othre high crimes and misdemeanors." This is the first step in the constitutional proccess of removing such goverment officals from office
Public bill
A legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern.
Pork barrel
They mighty list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions available in a congressional district.
franking priviledges
gov pays for Congressman to send mail if it is informing people of acts in congress
standing committee
A permanent committee in the House or Senate that considers bills within a certain subject area.
Congressional Research Service
Created in 1914 to respond to congressional requests for information. It also keeps track of every major bill and produces summaries of legislation for members of Congress.
seniority system
a custom followed in both chambers of Congress specifying that the member of the majority party with the longest term of continuous service will be given preference when a committee chairperson (or a holder of some other significant post) is selected
bicameral legislature
a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts
fast tracking
When the President gets a bill right onto the floor, either bypassing the committee or getting a quick approval without a hearing. He is hoping to avoid getting amendments tacked on to the bill and is moving for a quick passage. Essentially he is trying to sneak one in the back door.
Voice vote
A method of voting used in both houses in which members vote by shouting yea or nay
roll-call vote
A method of voting used in both houses in which members answer yea or nay when their names are called. These votes are recorded and occur in the House at the request of 20 percent of its members.
minority leader
The head of the minority party in each house of Congress chosen by the caucus of the minority party. This person formulates the minority party's strategy and program.
cloture rule
a rule used by the Senate to end or limit debate
tax reform act of 1986
made behind closed doors and had no amendments; pushed by Reagan; proved that Congress can solve collective action problems
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