AP Gov 22 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Discount Rates
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constitution
A nation's basic law.
Anti-federalists
decentralists who opposed ratifying the Constitution
thomas jefferson founded
social contract theory
patronage
appointed loyal party members to government positions
critical elections
elections that disrupt party coalitions and create new ones in a party realignment
social conservatives
prefer government enforcement on social issues (i.e. pro-life, anti gay-rights, restriction on drug usage, etc.)
Constituency service
Casework, assistance to constituents by congressional members
government
The system for implementing decisions made through the political process.
elastic clause
necessary and proper clause. stretches Congress' enumerate powers.
ideology
set of beliefs about political values and the role of government
interstate compacts
contracts between states that carry the force of law; usually used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns
Constitutional courts
Federal courts created by Congress under Article III of the Constitution, including the district courts, courts of appeals, &specialized courts such as the U.S. Court of International Trade
Select committee
Committees appointed for a single purpose, such as an investigation. Link to: watchdog role of the press; iron triangle; legislative oversight.
Personal Liberty
freedom to act without government intervention
Litmus Test
an examination of the political ideology of a nominated judge
subgovernments
a network or groups within the american political system that exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas. Also knows as iron triangles, they are composed of interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administering that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittees handling that policy
Cabinet
An advisory group selected by the president to aid in making decisions. The cabinet includes the heads of fifteen executive departments and others named by the president.
impeach
to accuse (a public official) before an appropriate tribunal of misconduct in office.
Policy Gridlock
A condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy. The result is that nothing may get done.
civil liberties
Freedoms found primarily in the Bill of Rights that are protected from government interference.
appeal
(law) a legal proceeding in which the appellant resorts to a higher court for the purpose of obtaining a review of a lower court decision and a reversal of the lower court's judgment or the granting of a new trial
Republic
a form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws
Constitutional law
Laws relating to the interpretation of the Constitution
Unit rule
an abandoned rule of the Democratic Party national convention in which the candidate with the most delegates from a state won all of that state's convention votes.
devolution
the current effort to scale back the size and activities of the national government and to shift responsibility for a wide range of domestic programs from Washington to the states. Recent years: welfare, health care, job training
Republicanism
A form of government in which power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected officials
Bully Pulpit
president able to use media and influence to get programs passed
actual group
the part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join
prior restraint
preventing an action before it even happens. relie
Dual Federalism
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
20th Ammendment
The president takes office on the 20th of January
public opinion polls
scientific efforts to estimate what an entire group thinks about an issue by asking a smaller sample of the group for its opinion
sound bite
a short, pithy comment that is likely to attract media attention, e.g., Ronald Reagan saying, "A recession is when your neighbor loses his job, a depression in when you lose your job, and recovery is when Jimmy Carter loses his job"
Tactic Social Contract
under Brezhnev - people would support the Russian government in return for public goods and services and security. Didn't have to rely on terror as source of legitimacy
executive order
A rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect of law. ___________ __________ can implement and give administrative effect to provisions in the Constitution, to treaties, and to statutes.
potential group
all the people who might be interest group members because they share some common interest. Almost always larger than an actual group.
concurrent powers
powers that can be exercised by both national and state governments. ex. taxes
Super Tuesday
A Tuesday in early March in which many presidential primaries, particularly in the South, are held.
Miranda vs. Arizona (1966)
necessary for police to read criminals their rights
random digit dialing
a technique used by pollsters to place telephone calls randomly to both listed and unlisted numbers when conducting a survey.
Palko v. Connecticut (1937)
Supreme Court says that states must observe all "fundamental" liberties.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
allowed states to ban abortions from public hospitals and permitted doctors to test to see if fetuses were viable
Class consiousness
A belier that you are a member of an economic group whose interests are opposed to people in other such groups
winner take all in electoral college
If a candidate wins 51% of the popular vote in that state, the the candidate gets that state
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