AP Gov 60 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Civil Case
sueing for money
recesses
Breaks from congressional service.
unitary system
Constitutional arrangement that concentrates power in a central government
Honoraria
Speaking fees. Banned for congressmen.
this political philosopher emphasized a strong authoritarian ruler
hobbes
Stare decisis
latin for judicial precedent
Heritage Foundation
Conservative think-tank ideological interest group.
cabinet
Advisory council for the president, consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president
vouchers
Money government provides to parents to pay their children's tuition in a public or private school of their choice
Divided Government
different parties control different branches of gov't
packing
Concentrations of the opposing party into a few districts in gerrymandering.
key inducements used by political machines
patronage
political philosopher who provided the idea of separation of powers
Montesquieu
bicameralism
The principle of a two-house legislature.
Shared powers
concurrent or overlapping powers between the federal and state governments. Ex: taxation
recall
Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
Census
A valuable tool for understanding demographic changes. The US Constitution requires that the government conduct an "actual enumeration" of the population every ten years.
attentive public
Citizens who follow public affairs carefully
constitutional democracy
A government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections
gender gap
The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and women
selective perception
The process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages
enumerated powers
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution
indictment
A formal written statement from a grand jury charging an individual with an offense; also called a true bill
name recognition
Incumbents have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them, and incumbents are more recognizable
ballot fatigue
Phenomenon in the United States resulting from the length of ballots.
delegate
An official who is expected to represent the views of his or her constituents even when personally holding different views; one interpretation of the role of the legislator.
election coverage focusing on which candidate is ahead in the polls
horseracing journalism
a centralized party organization that dominates local politics by controlling elections
party machine
The tendency to hold primaries and caucuses early
front-loading
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819: established principal of national supremacy and validy of implied powers
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Libel
publication that has false info that defames the character of an individual
Front loading
scheduling of the early presidential primaries and its impact on the selection of the majority of presidential delegates
pluralism
Political system in which power is distributed among multiple groups.
income tax
Shares of individual wages and corporate revenues collected by the government. The Sixteenth Amendment explicitly authorized Congress to levy a tax on income.
public policy
the course of action the government takes in response to an issue or problem
weapons of mass destruction
biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons that can cause a massive number of deaths in a single use
Speaker
The presiding officer in the House of Representatives, formally elected by the House but actually selected by the majority party
budget deficit
the condition that exists when the federal government raises less revenue than it spends
Block Grants
large openended chunks of money from fed gov't to states
political socialization
The process most notably in families and schools by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
dual federalism
views the Constitution as giving a limited set of powers to the national government, leaving the rest to sovereign states
a short video clip highlighting a candidate's media event
sound byte
The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a president
National Convention
a nation is organized with two levels of formal government
federalism
Categorical Grant
$ granted for a spicific purpose (lunch program)
connecticut compromise
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
cash-and-carry
provided for in the Neutrality Act of 1939, it stipulated that the United States could provide goods to countries at war if those countries paid cash and transported the goods in their own ships
Congressional oversight
power used by COngress to gather information useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive departments and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy
President pro tempore
temporary presiding officer of the Senate
Civil Disobedience
A form of political participation that reflects conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
emographic groups and votings
political parties use demographics, which are selected population characteristics, to appeal to different groups such as ethnicities, moral, or religious groups in their opinion for voting and elections
inflation
a rise in the general price level (and decrease in dollar value) owing to an increase in the volume of money and credit in relation to available goods
national debt
the total amount of money the federal government has borrowed to finance deficit spending over the years
double jeopardy
Trial or punishment for the same crime by the same government; forbidden by the Constitution
movement
A large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies
open shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment
Bad Tendency Doctrine
speech that is going to cause something bad, is not protected speech
mark up
Session when a bill is amended in committee.
voting with one party for one office bt another party for another office
ticket splitting
elitism
Power is held by a small number of well-positioned, highly influential individuals
Red tape
the difficulty it takes to get answers from a bureaucratic agency
interest group
A collection of people who share some common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of government and employ tactics such as lobbying to achieve their goals.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)
Largely banned party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy
petit jury
a jury of 6 to 12 persons who determine guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action
necessary and proper clause
the clause in the Constitution setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
Block Grant
$ granted by Federal gov to states for a broad reason (transportation), rather than spacific (school lunch).
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968
agreement that stopped and monitored the spread of nuclear weapons to countries who did not have the bomb
Office of Management and Budget
largest cabinet within the executive branch of the government, oversees activities of federal agencies and also gives expert advice on a wide range of issues
crossover voting
Voting by a member of one party for a candidate of another party
Devolution Era *New Federalism (1980s...)
Startin with Regan in 1980 and Republican majorities in Congress in 1994, efforts have grown to limit federal infulence. More control to states, more emphasis on shrinking national govt.
Civil Rights Era (1950-1970s)
Brown v Board of Ed, Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Great Society programs, federal authority over civil liberties and public welfare is expanded
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