AP Government - Supreme Court Cases Flashcards

Supreme Court of the United States
Terms Definitions
South Carolina v. Katzenbach
mandated preclearance
Miller v. Johnson
(1995) States cannot draw congressional districts in which race is the primary consideration.
Loving v Virginia
Declared laws against interracial marriage unconstitutional
Thornhill v. Alabama (1940)
Labor union strikes are lawful
Baker v. Carr
(1962) Guaranty Clause does not prevent courts from having the right to determine whether state legislative apportionment violates citizens' 14th A. rights
Miranda v Arizona
Established Miranda rights and that the interrogated must be informed of them before quetioning. Warnings of counsel and silence. Warren Court's judicial activism in criminal rights
Griswold vs. Connecticut
A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. Under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
Miller v. California
Provided 4 standards to determine obsecenity (THE MILLER TEST): 1) Purpose 2) Offensive sexual content 3) Lack serious value 4) Community standard.
Roth v. United States
Obsenity is not protected constitutionally.
Engel v. Vitale
Teacher-led prayer in a school district was struck down as violating the establishment clause of the first amendment. It should remain "a private matter."
Gibbons v. Ogden
The Supreme Court broadly interpreted the clause in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.
Betts v. Brady (1942)
Established that state governments did not have to provide lawyers to indigent defendants in capital cases
Gideon v. Wainwright
(1963) The state's refusal to appoint counsel for an indigent accused of non-capital felony violated due process clause.
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
This campaign finance case permitted "reasonable restrictions" on individual, corporate and group contributions to candidates; limits on campaign expenditures were disallowed since these "place substantial and direct restrictions on protected political expression."
Tinker. v Des Moines
Students wore black armbands to protest the Vietnam war and were punished. Guaranteed a student's right of protest.
Plessy V. Ferguson
Said that there can be segregated facilities if they're "separate but equal"
Texas vs. Johnson
Ruled that a person has a constitutional right to burn the american flag.
Dred Scott v Sanford
Nullified the Missouri Compromise and declare slaves to be property, not citizens
Renkin v. McFearson
the Court held that Rankin's interest in discharging McPherson was outweighed by her rights under the First Amendment. The Court held that McPherson's statement, when considered in context, "plainly dealt with a matter of public concern." The Court found that there was no evidence that McPherson's speech interfered with "the efficient functioning of the office" and that her private comment had not discredited the office; 1st Amendment (Freedom of Speech, etc.)
Texas v. Johnson 1989
-Flag-burning is symbolic speech with a political purpose and is protected by 1st Amendment.
-struck down Texas law
Bush v. Gore
1st and only time the supreme court decided on an election *all counties must have identical voting process
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Ruled that American citizens of Japanese descent could be interned and deprived of basic constitutional rights due to executive order
Aguilar v. Felton 1985
the Court ruled that state programs providing special educational sercives for disadvantaged students attending religious schools violated the establishment clause
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Since the police had not informed Miranda of his constitutional right to keep silent, his rights were violated and conviction was set aside.
Wesberry V. Sanders
Ordered house districts to be as near equal in population as possible (extension of baker v carr to congressional districts)
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.
Wisconsin v. Yoder
Court rules Amish children do not have to go to school after the 8th grade as the material taught in further schooling would go against Amish beliefs; 1st Amendment (Free Exercise Clause).
Brown v. Board 1954
De jure (according to law) School segregation unconstitutional; segregation psychologically damaging to blacks; overturned separate but equal; use of 14th Amendment; judicial activism of Warren Court; unanimous decision.
de facto= according to custom
Miranda v. Arizona
This famous 5, 6, and 14 amendment case established the rights of the accused to be read to a person who is in custody and being questioned for a specific crime.
Texas v. Johnson
Flag burning is a form of symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000)
Private organizations' First Amendment right of expressive association allows them to choose their own membership and expel members based on their sexual orientation even if such discrimination would otherwise be prohibited by anti-discrimination legislation designed to protect minorities in public accommodations. Boy Scouts of America were allowed to expel any member who was discovered to be homosexual
New York Times Co. v. US
(1971) "Pentagon Papers" case decided Nixon's attempted "prior restraint" was unconstitutional interference with press freedom.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
The Court ruled that New York state could not require a state-composed prayer to begin the school day. Even such a non-denominational prayer as this one was unconstitutional government sponsorship of religion.
Locke v. Davey
the Court ruled that a state does not violate the First Amendment's free exercise clause when it funds secular college majors but excludes devotional theology majors. The Court rejected Davey's argument that the state scholarship program is unconstitutional because it is not neutral toward religion. "The State has merely chosen not to fund a distinct category of instruction," the Court wrote; 1st Amendment (Free Exercise Clause).
Miller v. California 1973
-Miller, a porn dealer, sent out ads with pictures to people's homes, to the entire neighborhood.
-defined obscenity: holding that community standards be used to determine whether material is obscene in terms of appealing to a prurient interest and being patently offensive and lacking in value.
Hazelwood School v. Kuhlmeier
A school newspaper may be censored by an advisor/principal if it is unreasonable and in conflict with civilized values.
Tinker v. Des Moines School District
(1969) Freedom of speech held to include students wearing black armbands at school to protest the Vietnam War
McCreary County, KT v. ACLU
The Court held that the displays of the Ten Commandments violated the establishment clause because their purpose had been to advance religion; 1st Amendment (Establishment Clause).
Everson v. Board of Education (1947)
The Court upheld a New Jersey policy of reimbursing parents of parochial and private school students for the costs of busing their children to school on the grounds that assistance went to the child, not the church.
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette
The Court ruled that the West Virginia policy requiring students and teachers to recite the Pledge of Allegiance was unconstitutional.
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