AP Government 33 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Favors limited gov.
Conservative
Bureaucrat
A career government employee.
Trustee
After listening to constiutents, elected representatives vote based on their own opinions
unconventional participation
protesting, civil disobedience, violence
Reconciliation
revisions of program authorizations to make the final budget meet the limits of the budget resolution, usually occurring toward the end of the budgetary process.
Confederation
An agreement among soverneign states that delegates certain powers to a national government.
democracy
Government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections.
Cooperative federalism
Cooperation among federal, state, &local govts; "marble cake" federalism
"Federal Registrar"
Official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulation of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
Caucus
an association of congress members created to advance a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest
Three-Fifths Compromise
offered at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, it was adopted by the delegates and counted every five slaves as three people for representation and tax purposes.
Iron Triangle
composed of bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or sub committees- have dominated some areas of domestic policy. They are characterized by mutual dependency, in which each element provides key services, information, or policy for the others.
Anti-Federalists
Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed the U.S. Constitution
earmarking
direction of funds for projects unrelated to the piece of legislation
Regulation
the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector. Regulations pervade the daily lives of people and institution.
Money
Personal and campaign money is needed to run; money plays a big role.
random sampling
The key technique employed by sophisticated survey researchers, which operates on the principle that everyone should have an equal probability of being selected for the sample.
monetarism
An economic theory holding that the supply of money is the key to a nation's economic health.
Independent Agencies
Government unit that closely resembles cabinet level departments but has a narrower area of responsibility. [These are not members of any cabinet department and heads may not be removed by the President. Heads of these agencies normally serve a fixed term of office.
electoral college
a unique american institution, created by the constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. although the electoral college vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winner-take-all rule gives clout to big states
critical election
Election periods marked by national crisis where new issues emerge and the majority party is displaced by the minority.
reserved powers
const powers belong soley to states
pluralist theory
Interest groups compete in the political arena with each promoting its own policy preferences through organized efforts.
Division Vote
A congressional voting procedure in which members stand and are counted.
deficit spending
When a government intentionally spends more money than it takes in.
Exit Polls
Polling those leaving the voting booths.
infotainment
the practice of mixing journalism w/ theater; employed by some news programs
Issue network
A policy-making alliance among loosely connected participants that comes together on a particular issue, then disbands.
president pro tempore
onstitutionally recognized officer of a legislative body who presides over the chamber in the absence of the normal presiding officer
Equal Rights Amendment
Failed Constitutional amendment that would have guaranteed equal protection under the law for women.
Assembly
(not an absolute right) the right to assemble
10 amendment
Guarantee that the people and the states have all the powers not specifically delegated the federal government (reserved powers)
Politics
The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue. This produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
coalition
A group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends.
Article 5
Article of the Constitution that sets up the amendment process.
Conservative
A person whose pol. views favor more local, limited govt, less govt regulations, conformity to social norms &values; rough on criminals
pluralism
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism
hyperpluralist theory
Craig v. Boren
1976 SuCo: Gender classifications are subject to medium scrutiny.
checks and balances
limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. Each constrains the other's activities
veto
to reject, as in to reject a bill
shay's rebellion
rebellion of farmers in MA which demonstrated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and the need for a strong Federal government
Extradition Clause
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
balanced budget
When a government spends exactly as much as it takes in.
committee chairs
The most important influencers of the congressional agenda.
Executive order
Directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law
Closed Primaries
elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote for that party's candidates, thus encouraging greater party loyalty
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
implied powers
powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constituion. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to "make all laways necessary and proper for carry into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
brown v. board of ed
separate is not equal
Closed Rule
An order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate and forbids a particular bill from being amended on the floor
Denied powers
powers that the national and/or state government could not excersize
Symbolic Speech
An action that does not consist of speaking or writing but that expresses an opinion (flag burning).
investigative journalism
the use of in depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams and schemes which at times puts the reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders
Free-rider problem
The problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join because they can benefit from the group's activities without officially joining. Link to: Olson's Law; cohesiveness.
Articles of Confederation
The first governing document of the confederated states, drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781, and replaced by the present Constitution in 1789.
Safe Districts
Districts in which the winner got more than 55 percent of the vote.
Hunt v. Cromartie
2001 SuCo: Gerrymandering on the basis of race is unconstitutional.
power elite view
view that the government is dominated by a few top leaders most of whom are outside of government
Office of Personnel Management
The central federal personnel office, created in 1978.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Abortion rights fall within the privacy implied in the 14th amendment
2nd Amendment
protects the right of states to have militias and the right of citizens to carry fire arms
equality of opportunity
giving people an equal chance to succeed
Progressive tax
A tax graduated so that people with higher incomes pay larger fraction of their income than people with lower incomes.
Campaigner
They vote and like to get involved in involved in campaign activities. they are better educated then the average voter and are interested in political struggles.
champion v. ames
congress may use commerce power as police power to outlaw interstate sale and shipment of lottery tickets
Freedom of Assembly
the right to gather with other people in public. This right is protected by the First Amendment to the US Constitution.
4. What is filibuster?
-a form of obstruction in a legislature or other decision-making body
Gitlow v. New York
1925 SuCo: Freedoms of press and speech are "fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the 14th amendment from impairment"
Judicial review
The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution or, in a state court, the state constitution.
restrictive covenant
A provision in a deed to real property prohibiting its sale to a person of a particular race or religion. Judicial enforcement of such deeds is unconstitutional.
Executive Office of the President
The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Currently the office includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, and several other units.
street level bureaucrats
those who are in constant contact with the public
War Powers Resolution
A law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
a clearing house for member nations to discuss monetary issues and develop international plans and policies to deal with monetary issues. Regulating monetary exchange rates is its primary task.
importance/effects of third parties
new issues, new groups, specific to a certain idea, take away votes from big partiesnever win
In selecting members of the White House staff, Presidents primarily seek people who
Are personally loyal to the president.
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
To libel a public figure, there must be "actual malice".
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