AP Government 35 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Australian Ballot
Voter Secrecy
plaintiff
individual/organization that brings complaint in court
always gov't in criminal cases
Bill
a proposal for a law
standing committees
Permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area.
regulation
agency adoption of regulation (ex: Food and Drug Administration approval of a new drug)
AFDC
Program to distribute welfare benefits that was formerly federally funded then devolved to the states in 1996.
Antifederalists
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government generally.
Constituent
people within a district or state-government official represents them.
Constitutionalism
The set of arrangements, including checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, rule of law, due process, and a bill of rights, that requires leaders to listen, think, bargain, and explain before they act or make law. We then hold them politically and legally accountable for how they exercise their powers.
Senate
term-6 years, number of members-100, requirements- must be 30 and a U.S. citizen for 4 years, leaders- Vice President, duties- represent each state.
Incumbents
those elected officials who are running for new terms of office.
Fragmentation
A situation in which responsibility for a policy area is dispersed among several units within the bureaucracy, making the coordination of policies both time-consuming and difficult.
Substantive Due Process
Constitutional requirement that governments act reasonably and that the substance of the laws themselves be fair and reasonable; limits what a government may do.
majority-minority districts
Congressional districts designed to make it easier for minority citizens to elect minority representatives. These districts are drawn so that the majority of their voters are minorities.
Street-level bureaucrats
phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion.
Power to Media
Gives wrong impression to people.
party dealignment
The gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in party by shrinking party identification.
means-tested programs
Government programs available only to individuals below the poverty line.
Electoral College
Representatives of each state who actually cast the final ballots in selecting the President.
Block Grant
money granted by the federal government to the states for a broad purpose rather than for a narrow purpose
linkage institutions
The channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, they include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
pork barrel
budget items proposed by legislators to benefit constituents in their home state or district
opinion leaders
Those individuals held in great respect because of their position, expertise, or personality, who may informally and unintentionally influence others.
Pluralism
different groups all vying for control of policy agenda forcing the groups to compromise. no one groups comes out in top
absolutism
The belief that the government should have all the power and be able to do whatever it wants.
Liberal
Racial groups who populate the lower income levels are more likely to be...
Lobbying
direct contact made by an interest group representative in order to persuade government officials to support the policies their interest group favors
party machine
a centralized party organization that dominates local politics by controlling elections
Sound bites
30-second statements on the evening news shows. The media have been accused of simplifying complicated political issues by relying on sound bites to explain them to the public
Teller Vote
a congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, first the yeas and then the nays. Since 1971, teller votes are recorded at the request of twenty members
shield law
Law guaranteeing news reporters the right to protect the anonymity of their sources. Many states have passed shield laws, but there is no federal shield law.
Municipality
city that has been chartered by state exercise defined power
Free Excersise Clause
A 1st amendment provision that prohibits gov. from interfering with the practice of religion.
Jim Crow
The various laws and practices of segregation, primarily in the South, installed after Reconstruction ended in 1876-1877.
Natural Rights
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept was central to John Locke's theories about government, and was widely accepted among America's Founding Fathers. Link to Dec. of Independence.
district courts
The 91 federal courts of original jurisdiction. They are the only federal courts in which trial are held and in which juries may be impaneled.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
1971 SuCo: Established the Lemon test.
Constitution
The document setting forth the laws & principles of the govt; a plan of govt
white house staff
analysts and advisers to the president, often given the title "special assistant."
a system in which the president submits the name of a candidate for judicial appointment to the senators from the candidate's state before formally submitting it for full senate approval
Senatorial courtesy
elastic clause
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
open primary
elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Dem or Rep contests
22 Amendment
Limits president's term of office to 2-4yr terms max 10
issue network
A policy making alliance among loosely connected participants that comes together on a particular issue, then disbands.
Political Ideology
A coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose. It helps give meaning to political events, personalities, and policies.
party organization
The formal structure and leadership of a political party.
federal budget
the document that details how much money the government collects and spends in a given year.
Photo ops
Photo opportunities set up by the candidates. The media have been accused of simplifying complicated political issues by relying on photo ops to explain them to the public.
Open Primaries
elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests.
concurring opinion
an opinion that agrees with the court's disposition of the case but is written to express a particular judge's reasoning
14th amendment
wording extends bill of rights to states
nationalized by court in end of 19th century
public bill
a legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern, like defense expenditures
classical republicanism
is the form of republicanism that began in classical antiquity and was revived and revised during the Renaissance.
Unreasonable searches and seizures
obtaining evidence without a good reason.
federalism
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
standing to sue
the requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case.
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention.
Cloture Rule
A Senate rule offering a means for stopping a filibuster.
Anti-Federalists
At the time of the Con, they argued that the Con was a class based document, would erode fundamental liberties and weaken the states.
Amicus Curiae Brief
Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
Precedent
A decision made by a higher court such as a circuit court of appeals or the Supreme Court that is binding on all other federal courts.
executive order
An order issued by the president that has the effect of law.
Independent regulatory commissions
govt. entities that are independent of the president; regulate the economy; ex: SEC, FBR, FCC
campaigners
People who not only vote but also get involved in campaign activities. They are better educated than the average voter, but what seems to distinguish them most is their interest in the conflicts, passions, and struggle of politics; their clear identification with a potential party; and their willingness to take strong positions.
civil disobedience
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
Keynesian economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and the curve during booms.
wall of separation
Court Ruling that government cannot be involved with religion
checks and balances
authority shared by three branches of government so that each branch can partially check the powers of the others
2. How many electoral votes are needed to win the presidency?
-270 electoral votes
Gregg v. Georgia
1976 SuCo: The death penalty is not cruel and unusual punishment.
Theory of deterrence
A theory that is based on creating enough military strength to convince other nations not to attack first.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
"Necessary and proper" clause
Clause in the Constitution that states that "Congress should have the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers. . . ." This clause is also known as the elastic clause as is a major and significant power of Congress, granting Congress the ability to interpret its lawmaking ability in a broad manner.
Unitary Government
one in which all power resides in the central gov't
Voting Trends
older - R; male - R; catholic - R; wealthy and highly educated - R opposite for democrats
Reapportionment Act of l929
act that provides for a permanent size of the House and for the number of seats, based on the census, each state should have.
political party
a group of ppl that are trying to win elections
As originally ratified, the United States Constitution included provisions designed to
increase the economic powers of the central government
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
It was a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States on affirmative action. It bars quota systems in college admissions but affirms the constitutionality of affirmative action programs giving equal access to minorities.
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