AP Government 37 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
activist approach (judical)
Amendment 22
Presidential Term Limits
Programs, money, &resources provided by the fed. govt to state &local govts to be used for specific projects &programs
Temporary committees organized for specific purposes are?
Standing committees
separate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas
Direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates, and some form political action committees (PACs).
the institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society
Connecticut Compromise
Legislative branch-2 houses-one based on population, one based on equal representation
ecclesia (greek); means a "calling out"
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
3/5 Compromise
5 slaves equals 3 votes
Race Gap
Color may equal more democratic
Chief elected executive in state government
the principle of cooperation among nations, for the promotion of their common good, sometimes as contrasted with nationalism, or devotion to the interests of a particular nation.
Party platform
political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. The platform is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength. It is the best formal statement of a party's beliefs.
Separation of Powers
division of governmental authority among the three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial branch. The US Constitution uses this principle in setting up the presidency, the Congress, and the courts.
right-to-work law
A state law forbidding requirements that workers must join a union to hold their jobs. It was specifically permitted in states by the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947
Article 4
Article of the Constitution that regulates the states' powers, and their interaction with the National government.
seniority rule
A legislative practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee.
Admissions Clause
Clause stating that Congress admits new states, unless a part of an existing state is involved.
Mapp v. Ohio
ruling that protection against unreasonable searches and seizures applied to states, as well
The exchange of political favors for support of a bill.
Speaker of the House
Constitutionally mandated position chosen by the majority party in the House; first in command in the Senate; second in the line of Presidential succession.
line organization
In the government bureaucracy, an agency whose head reports directly to the president.
People who hold liberal views on economic matters and conservative on social matters. They prefer a strong government that will reduce economic inequality, regulate businesses, and impose stricter social and criminal sanctions.
categorical grant
Federal grants for specific purposes define by law
Political Socialization
Process by which people acquire political values
Political efficacy
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
Government Accountability Office
the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress
recall election
Process through which voters can shorten and office holder's term. One of several Progressive Era reforms that increased the voters' power over the government.
Reserved powers
the powers held by the state alon
8th amendment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
categorical grants
Grants given to communities and states for very specific programs that require certain conditions or rules to be applied by the agencies spending the federal monies. If the federal rules are not followed, the monies can be withdrawn.
Party eras
Historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of the elections.
The process by which we select our government leaders and what policies these leaders pursue. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
Keynesian economic theory
The theory emphasizing that government spending and deficits can help the economy weather its normal ups and downs. Proponents of this theory advocate using the power of government to stimulate the economy when it is lagging.
The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election.
Policy Agenda
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.
The judicial interpretation of an act of Congress.
Statutory construction
Supreme Court
The pinnacle of the American judicial system. The court ensures uniformity in interpreting national laws, resolves conflicts among states, and maintains national supremacy in law. It has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction, but unlike other federal courts, it controls its own agenda.
Direct democracy
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly.
line-item veto
an executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
District Courts
The 91 federal courts of original jurisdiction. They are the only federal courts in which trials are held and in which juries may be impaneled.
command economy
An economy where all decisions are made by the government.
articles of confederation
a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half
Congressional Caucus
An association or members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group such as gender or race.
60% of the federal workforce are in Cabinet departments
judicial activist
One who believes that the Constitution is a living document whose strength lies in its flexibility and that judges should make bold policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground by challenging the policy positions of the Congress and the President
lawrence v. texas
texas antisodomy law violates 14th amendment
Seniority System
A simple rule for picking committee chairs, in effect until the 1970s. The member who had served on the committee the longest and whose party controlled Congress became chair, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence.
Constitutional Convention (C.C.)
the convention in Philadelphia, May 25 to September 17, 1787, that framed the Constitution of the US
Americans with Disabilities Act
1990- Can't discriminate based on disability unless the person is unqualified>> must make all buildings accessible
command and control policy
the existing system of regulation whereby government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders
Hazelwood v Kuhlmeier
Censorship of school paper allowed by Bill of Rights
natural rights
The rights of all people to dignity and worth; also called human rights.
NAACP v. Alabama
the supreme court protected the right to assemble peaceably in this 1958 case when it decided the NAACP did not have to reveal its membership list and thus subject its members to harassment.
Marbury v. Madison
Court can rule on constitutionality of laws, Judicial Review
House Rules Committee
Determines the rules for debate of each bill, including whether the bill may be amended. This is the most powerful committee in the House.
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporations to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
faithless elector
An elector who votes for someone other than the candidate who won the most votes in the state.
Ballot fatigue
What is the phenomenon in which the farther down the ballot an office is, the fewer the number of votes that will be cast for it.
The belief that the US was harmed by its war in Vietnam and so should avoid supposedly similar events.
civil rights act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
Open rule
A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill.
congressional campaign committee
A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would-be members
president pro tempore
A position created in the Constitution to serve as presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the vice president.
common law
a system of laws set by a government that is applicable to all regions within that government's power
Schenck v. United States
1919 SuCo: Government can limit speech if it evokes a "clear and present danger."
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services.
normal trade relations
Trade status granted as part of an international trade policy that gives a nation the same favorable trade concessions and tariffs that the best trading partners receive
Devolution revolution
The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states.
Judicial Review
the power of the courts to hold acts of Congress and by implication the executive in violation of the Constiution
Privileges and immunities clause
Part of Article IV of he Constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states
Full faith and credit clause
Clause in the Constitution (Article 4, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid
Describe Nigeria's impact on comparative politics, especially in Africa.
The impact on comparative politics is by far the largest country in Africa and among the ten most populous countries in the world. They have human and material resources to overcome the vicious cycle of poverty and autocracy. Nigeria remains the oldest surviving federation in Africa. Nigeria’s multiethnic, multi-religious, multi-class, and multiregional nature makes it an especially valuable case for the study for social cleavages in conflict and cooperation. The U.S. is nearing a demographic transition from a white majority, can learn to find unity amid cultural diversity. Nigeria’s past failures to sustain democracy and economic development demonstrates their dependence on leadership, political culture, institutional autonomy, and the external economic climate. Uncertain whether Nigeria will return to the path of autocracy, underdevelopment, and fragmentation or continue on a course toward democratic consolidation and national construction.
what effect does region have on political beliefs?
Midwest = Democratic; South = conservative; East Coast = most liberal region in the country; west coast = most polarized, liberals tend to congregate in the cities; Westerners = conservative
how does one become a member of a party
declare you are a member
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