AP Government : Federalism Flashcards

Terms Definitions
State Powers
regulate intrastate commerce, establish local governments, establish public school systems, administer elections, protect the public's health, welfare, and morals, regulate corporations, establish licensing requirements for certain regulated professions
Revenue Sharing
proposed under the Johnson administration and popular under the Nixon administration, "no strings attached" form of aid to state and local governments, could be used for virtually any project but never exceeded more than two percent of revenues, eliminated during Reagan's administration
Delegated Powers
expressed or enumerated powers, specifically given to the national government, Articles I - V
Fiscal Federalism
national government's patterns of spending, taxation, and providing grants to influence state and local governments
One recently controversial application of the "full faith and credit" provision of the Constitution is for
same-sex marriages
Grants for specific programs distributed according to community demographic factors, such as population or income, are
formula grants
Dual Federalism
1789-1932, views the national and state governments each remaining supreme within their own sphere of influence, "layer cake federalism", each level of government is seen as seperate from the other, the national government having authority over national matters and state governments having authroity over state matters, states educate their citizens and national has foreign policy issues
New Federalism
Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and George H.W. Bush, government attempted to implement a reversal of cooperative federalism, place more responsibility on the states about how grant money would be spent, devolution, welfare reform legislation, which has returned authority over welfare programs to the states, national government directed where much of the money would be spent in the stimulus-spending bills of Obama
requirements that are imposed by the national government on the state and local governments, Americans with Disabilities Act
In ______ federalism, the powers and policy assignments of the different levels of government are distinct, like a layer cake.
The federal system
DECENTRALIZES; has shared power between units of government
Unfunded Mandates
mandates often require state or local governments to meet the requirement at their own expense, 1994 Congress passed the Reform Act, which imposed limitations on Congress's ability to pass unfunded mandate legislation
Supremacy clause
Article VI helps to resolve conflicts between national and state laws, because two levels of government area operating within the same territory and over the same people, the Constitution shall be the "supreme law of the land"
states may return fugitives to a state from which they have fled to avoid criminal prosecution at the request of the governor of the state
Advantages of Federalism
ideally suited to large geographic area because it encourages diversity in local government, avoids concentration of political power, accommodated already existing state governments, states serve as training grounds for national leaders, keeps government close to the people
Federal policies to regulate food and drugs, build interstate highways, and protect consumers are all justified as
implied powers
Laws that directly regulate abortion, drinking ages, marriage and divorce, and sexual behaviour are policy prerogatives that belong to
the State Governments
Formula Grants
awarded on the basis of an established formula, such as Medicaid
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 issue was the definition of commerce and whether the national government had power to regulate interstate commerce, Fulton and Livingston had exclusive rights to operate steamboats in New York waters and Aaron Ogden the right to operate a ferry between NY and NJ, Gibbons had received a national government license to operate boats in interstate waters, Ogden sued Gibbons, Marshall defined commerce as including all business dealings, the power to regulate interstate commerce belongs exclusively to the national government
Prohibited Powers
powers that are denied to the national government, state government, or both (Article I, Sections 9 and 10), cannot pass an ex post facto law or a bill of attainder
What is one example of a confederation?
the United Nations
The Constitution's supremacy clause
is that teh Constitution overrides State and Local laws (NATIONAL SUPREMACY)
If the allocation of power in a cooperative federal system were compared to a cake it would be most like
layer cake
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 Maryland imposed a tax on the National Bank, McCulloch refused to pay the tax, Marshall court ruled that although no provision of the Constitution grants the national government the expressed power to create a national bank, the authority comes from the Necessary and Proper Clause, established the implied powers of the national government and national supremacy
National and State Powers
levy taxes, borrow money, spend for general welfare, establish courts, enact and enforce laws, charter banks
The government's responses in the wake of Hurricane Katrina underscores
the complexity of federalism
The efforts of Candy Lightner and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) to raise the legal drinking age to 21 are an example of
National Congress influence/Federalism influence over states
Full Faith and Credit Clause
states are required to recognize the laws and legal documents of other states, such as birth certificates, marriage licenses, drivers' licenses, wills
Contracts between business firms can be enforced across state boundaries as part of the constitutional provision of
the full faith and credit clause
Over the last 125 years the peole of the United States have turned increasingly to the national government to solve problems or provide assistance because
the government provides grants
How does federalism decentralize our policies?
people debate over whether state or local government should regulate policies
The McColloch v. Maryland case dealt with what specific grievance?
state taxing a national government (used the elastic clause and interpreted the Constitution)
In determining the power of Congress to regulate commerce in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court
defined commerce as virtually every form of commercial activity
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