AP Government Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Secretary of Agriculture
Vilsack
Water Pollution Control Act
1973
reapportionment-
the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census
Korematso v. U.S.
upheld internment camps
devolution
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
Thomas Jefferson
Louisiana Purchase: No Constitutional Authority
The Constitution
Says remarkably little about Presidential power.
Standing committee
Permanent committees in the House/Senate-every represetative and every senator is appointed to 2 or 3.
Iron Triangle
A mutually dependent relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and government agencies that share a common policy concern.
Constitutionalism
The set of arrangements, including checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, rule of law, due process, and a bill of rights, that requires our leaders to listen, think, bargain, and explain before they act or make laws. We then hold them politically and legally accountable for how they exercise their powers.
Continuing resolution
emergency spending legislation that prevents the shutdown of any department simply because its budget has not been enacted.
packing
redistricting that packs all seats into one area/ your party loses seats in that area, but you dominate the surrounding area
political culture
commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values about how government should operate
Plurality
Electoral system, used in American elections (unless changed on the state level to nominate candidates)where the winner is the pesron who gets the most votes, even if he/she does not get the majority.
Blanket Primary
Registered voters may vote for candidates from either party on the same primary ballot
muckraking
The practice of journalists to expose the inappropriate actions of public officials, government organizations or corporations.
public opinion
The distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues.
republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Joint committees
permanent panels that include members from both chambers, which generally conduct studies or perform housekeeping tasks rather than consider measures.
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Enumerated powers
libel
The publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
Simple Resolution
Used to express nonbinding positions of the Senate or to deal with the Senate's internal affairs, such as the creation of a special committee.
liberal
A person who favors more government involvement in business, social welfare, minority rights, and increased government spending.
Regulation
the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.
statecraft
The exercise of power, guided by wisdom, in pursuit of the public good.
Anti-Federalists
In favor of a stronger stater government
Filibuster
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
Common Law
The accumulation of judicial decisions applied in civil law disputes.
Executive privilege
The right to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to National Security.
Categorical Grants
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport.
representative democracy
Form of government under which citizens vote for delegates who in turn represent citizens' interest within the government. The US is this.
Griswold v Connecticut
1965-- unstated liberties implied by the explicitly stated rights (Shadows; penumbras) protecting right to privacy-- includes right to family planning between husband and wife
Roth vs. US
USSC 1957, decision ruling that obscenity is not with in the area of constitutionally protected speech or press". Roth owned a book store and was showing obscene stuff. naughty naughty.
government corporations
The U.S. Postal Service and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation are the two most famous examples of governmental agencies that create revenue and are expected to run like businesses.
bandwagon effect
An effect caused by exit poll projections in which undecided voters turnout to support the candidate who is leading in the polls.
civil disobedience
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
Affirmative Action
A policy designed to give special compensation to a previously disadvantaged group.
The Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal Reserve Board are examples of
Independent regulatory agencies.
Matching funds
Contributions of up to 250$ are matched from the presidential election campaign fund to candidates for the presidential nomination who qualify and agree to meet various conditions, such as limiting their overall spending.
Those delegated powers of the National Government that are suggested by the expressed powers set out in the Constitution; those "necessary and proper" to carry out the expressed powers
Implied powers
trial courts
Courts that hear civil and criminal cases and consider the facts only.
courts of appeal
appelate courts impowered to review all final decisions of district courts.
Bush Doctrine
A policy adopted by the Bush administration in 2001 that asserts America's right to attack any nation that might be used against U.S. interests at home or abroad.
winner-takes-all
an election where the person with the most votes (plurality) wins with no proportional representation going to runners-up
Conference Committee
Committees formed from each house to reconcile the language of a bill as it emerges from the House and the Senate; "iron out" language differences.
international organization
An institution set up by agreements between nations, such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization.
extradition
surrender of prisoner by one state to another
Natural law
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
Elite Theory
A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
caucus
a meeting of members of a political party or the members of a party in a legislature also referred to as a party caucus in some states used to select delegates to the national conventions, which nominate presidential candidates
Gerrymandering
Drawing a district in some bizarre or unusual manner in order to create an electoral advantage.
Interest Groups
Any group that seeks to influence public policy.
Charter Colony
A colony chartered by a mother country, but is self governed mostly by white, male, protestant land owners
party electorate
those who have registered under a given party
Subnational governments
Another way of referring to state and local govt. Through a process of reform, modernization, and changing intergovernmental relations since the 1960s, subnational govt. have assumed now responsibilities and importance
New Jersey Plan
proposal to create a weak national government, voted to amend--not replace--the Articles of Confederation. Congress would remain substandard to state governments, according to this proposal
An office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Consists of the President, Vice President, Secretary of state, and Secretary of Defense.
National Security Council
Indirect (representative) democracy
A system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf
political socialization
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
electoral college
created to choose pres and VP; general elections voters choose pres; winner in each state gets all of the states electoral votes; if majority cant be reached election determ by HOR
separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
regressive taxes
A taxation system that costs the poor a larger portion of their income than it does the rich because the amount of tax gets smaller as the amount to which the tax is applied gets larger.
War Powers Resolution
passed in 1973, requires presidents to consult with Congress prior to using military force and mandates the withdrawal of forces after sixty days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension.
School District Abington Township v. Schempp
prohibited school-sponsored Bible reading
When a bill passes the House and Senate in substantially different forms, the differences are resolved in?
conference committee
Closed shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
sound bite
A radio or movie clip of someone speaking.
25th Amendment
says VP becomes acting pres. if both vp and the pres's cabinet determine that the pres. is disabled. Also outlines how a recuperated pres. can reclaim the job.
poverty line
The amount of income a family in the U.S. needs to earn annually to maintain only an "austere" standard of living. Those with incomes below tis line are the targets of many assistance programs.
judicial review
power of the courts to review acts of other branches of government and the states
Council of Economic Advisers
3 appointees who advise the President on the state of the economy and economic policy
Federal Reserve System
The system created by Congress in 1913 to establish banking practices and regulate currency in circulation and the amount of credit available. It consists of 12 regional banks supervised by the Board of Governors. Often called simply the Fed.
White House staff
managed by the White House Chief of Staff, who directly advises the president on a daily basis, it includes the more than 600 people who work at the White House, from the chef to the advance people who make travel arrangements. The key staff departments include the political offices of the Office of Communications, Legislative Affairs, Political Affairs, and Intergovernmental Affairs. It includes the support services of Scheduling, Personnel, and Secret Service and the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, and cabinet secretaries.
oliver wendell holmes
Along with John Marshall, he is often considered considered one of the greatest justices in Supreme Court history. His opinions and famous dissents in favor of individual liberties are still frequently quoted today. He argued that current necessity rather than precedent should determine the rules by which people are governed; that experience, not logic, should be the basis of law.
Mandate theory of elections
belief that election winner has a mandate to implement policy promises
Committee of the Whole
a device in which a legislative body is considered one large committee. All members of the legislative body are members of such a committee
House of Representatives
must be 25, 7 years of citizenship, 2 year term, 435 members, speaker of the house, no limit on terms
Sovereign Immunity
The right of a state to be free from lawsuit unless it gives permission to the suit. Under the 11th Amendment all states are considered sovereign
New York Times v. Sullivan
libel must stem from actual malice and purposeful disregard for the truth (for public, not private, figures)
equality of opportunity
A view that it is wrong to use race or sex either to discriminate against or giver preferential treatment to minorities or women.
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