AP Government Must Know Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Peace and Freedom
Liberal
indictment
an accusation of wrongdoing
Referendum
State-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment
Incumbent
The person currently in office.
Budget
A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditure). Public budgets are the supreme example of Harold Lasswell's definition of politics as "who gets what, when, and how."
implied
powers established by the federal government through the Necessary and Proper (elastic) Clause. powers exercised by the federal government of the United States that are not expressly delegated to it by the Constitution, Include establishing a National Bank
Constituent
people within a district or state-government official represents them.
Monetary policy
controlling the money supply-Federal Reserve (independent agency)
Department
Usually the largest organization in government; also the highest rank in federal hierarchy.
Proxy
A written authorization to cast another person's vote
Workfare
an alternative to the traditional welfare, where an individual is trained to work instead of receiving welfare.
home style
activities of Congress members specifically directed at their home constituents
Mercantilism
An economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade
republic
a government in which elected representatives make the decisions
casework
Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals; cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have the right to get.
representative democracy
government that derives its powers indirectly from the people, who elect those who will govern; also called a republic
press conferences
Meetings of public officials with reporters.
Hatch Act
A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics.
Numerical quotas
The strongest and most controversial form of affirmative action is
A tradition whereby nominations for state-level federal judicial post are not confirmed if they are opposed by a senator from the state in which the nominee will serve.
Senatorial courtesty
soft money
political donations made to parties for the purpose of general party maintenance and support such as get out the vote campaigns, issue advocacy, and ads that promote the party but not individ cands; banned in 2002 by the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (aka McCain Feingold Bill)
primary election
Nominating election held to choose party candidates who will run in the general election.
Minority Leader
the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House or the Senate
yellow journalism
Journalism that focuses on shocking and sordid stories to sell newspapers.
Public Opinion
The views of the American people.
Iron Triangle
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
"Old" Ethnicity
Third wave of immigrants; different party ideologies Democrats: workers---eventually became more conservative (rep)
Commerce clause
The clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
Mark-Up
The committee meeting held to review the text of a bill before reporting it to the floor. Committee members do not make changes to the text but can vote on proposed amendments. In conclusion, members vote on a motion to send the bill with accompanying amendments, to the House.
runoff primary
Election held between two top vote-getters in a primary election when neither received a legally required minimum percentage of the vote. Many states require this when no candidate receives at least 40% of the primary vote for his/her party.
The Pentagon Papers
Common case dealing with prior restraints and national security involved the publications of stolen pentagon papers about military involvement in Vietnam were leaked
Establishment Clause
Part of 1st amendment stating that: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"
quorum
The number of members needed to hold an official meeting or conduct binding votes. The traditional number in the U.S. Congress is half of members plus one.
Selective perception
The phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions. This decreases
the likelihood that average Americans challenge their own presuppositions.
policy voting
Electoral choices that are made on basis of the voters' policy preferences and on the basis of where the candidates stand on policy issues.
bicameral legislature
A legislature divided into 2 houses, such as the US Congress and most state legislatures.
court of appeals
(initially a circuit court for important cases, one distirct court judge 2 SC judges not initially appelate)
the exclusionary rule
The principle based on federal Constitutional Law that evidence illegally seized by law enforcement officers in violation of a suspect's right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures cannot be used against the suspect in a criminal prosecution.
the legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the fourteenth amendment
Incorporation Doctrine
Keynesian economic theory
The theory emphasizing that government spending and deficits can help the economy weather its normal ups and downs. Proponents of this theory advocate using the power of government to stimulate the economy when it is lagging.
judicial activism
making of new public policies through decisions of judges
delegated powers
powers given to congress rather than to the states
eminent domain
government has the authority to take property for the public good providing just compensation is given
Political Action Committees
Political funding vehicles created by 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create a PAC and register it with the Federal Election Commission (FEC), which will meticulously monitor the PAC's expenditures.
Bakke case
This Supreme Court Case decided in 1978 that affirmative action is legal as long as race is not the only factor considered.
coalition
a group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends
Political Culture
The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms about how citizens relate to governments and to one another.
Fiscal Federalism
National govt's use of fiscal policy to influence states through the granting/withholding of appropriations
Marbury v. Madison
establishing the Supreme court's power of judicial review
intergovernmental relations
the workings of the federal system- the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments
mcculloch v. maryland
upholds necessary and proper clause and supremacy clause
can make nat'l bank, states can't tax it
Congressional Budget Office
a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government. It is a government agency that provides economic data to Congress
creative federalism
the 5th period under president john F. kenedy's new frontier and president lyndon johnson's great society
Miranda Warnings
Series of rules taken from Miranda v. Arizona (1966) designed to protect the self-incrimination rights of those in legal custody. These include: 1) the right to remain silent & right to an attorney. Miranda only applies during custodial interrogation.
standing to sue
the requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case, which depends on whether they have sustained or are likely to sustain a direct and substantial injury from a party or an action of government
Political action committees (PACs)
Political funding vehicles created by 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create this and register it with the Federal Election Commission (FEC), which will meticulously monitor the its expenditures.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Case in which the Supreme Court's decision established the Lemon test, which details the requirements for legislation concerning religion
Federalist No. 78
judiciary would be the least powerful branch (anti-Federalists did not agree), independence of judges needed (for rights of individuals)
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
A bipartisan body charged with administering campaign finance laws.
party competition
the battle of the parties for control of public offices. Ups and downs of the two major parties are one of the most important elements in American politics.
incorporation doctrine
legal concept under which the SC has nationalized the BoR by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the 14th Amendment
Articles of Confederation
the document that created the first central government for the United States; it was replaced by the Constitution in 1789
minority party
In a legislative body, the party with fewer than half of the seats.
Party identification
is still the top factor that decides how people vote in presidential elections. However, the influence of parties has declined since the 1960s.
free exercise clause
right to believe, not necessarily to practice; as long as law is not specifically aimed at religion, it is constitutional
dual federalism
a model of federalism in which the powers of state and national government are separate and independent of each other.
Lobbyist
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
de jure segregation
racial segregation that is required by law.
formula grants
gives most $.
$ given for specific something that is entitle by mathematic formulas (medicare)
(parts of categorical)
Money
Need a lot of it to run an effective campaign
5. What was the ruling on public busing in Everson V. Board?
-The-wall-of-separation-principle is renounced.
Clear and present danger test
Interpretation of the First Amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts.
winner take all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
Free rider
An individual who does not to join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the group's influence.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
responsible for preparing the president's budget and assessing the budgetary implications of legislative proposals
Split Ticket
a ballot cast by a voter who votes for candidates from more than one party
Clear and Present Danger Doctrine
established in Schenck v United States (1919), it gives the government the right to censor free speech if, during national emergencies such as war, it can be proven that the result of the speech will significantly hurt national security.
why conventions are no longer significant
there isn't any suspenseand everyone usually knows who it is before the convention
Which of the following best characterizes the influence of the news media on public opinion in the United States?
They affect which issues the public thinks are important.
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
public officals may not win a libel suit unless they can prove that the statement was made knowing it to be false or with reckless disreguard of its truth.
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