AP Government Vocab 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Consultants
Professional consultants get politicians the most exposure for their money. Example: buying TV time, buttons, signs, etc.
devolution
The late-20th-century movement to reduce the influence of the federal government and other governments and other governments to return to a simpler form of governmental controls.
earmark
provision w/in legislation that appropriates money to a specific project, usually to benefit a small # of individs or a region
standing
right of individual/organization to initiate court case
parties must have stake in outcome (injury)
World trade organization
International organization that regulates international trade.
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole.
Sample
incumbent
The current holder of elected office.
sample
A relatively small proportion of people in a survey who are chosen to represent the whole
government
The formal and informal institutions, people, and processes used to create and conduct public policy.
Gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent. (considered Illegal by supreme Court Case Baker V Carr)
Census
A valuable tool for understanding demographic changes. The Constitution requires that the government conduct an "actual enumeration" of the population every ten years.
News media
Media that emphasize the news.
Apportionment
The process of allotting congressional seats to each state following the decennial census according to their proportion of the population
Homophobia
fear or hatred of homosexuals (one cause can be religion)
commission government
A government formed by commissioners, heads of different departments of city government, who are popularly elected to form the city council and thus center both legislative and executive powers in one body.
Electoral College
A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. Candidates who win
the popular vote in each state receive all of that state's electoral votes. The candidate receiving 270 electoral votes wins the presidential election.
revolving door
the practice of the government officials becoming lobbyists for the industry or companies they were responsible for regulating while they were public servants.
example: a gov official quits his job to be a lobbyist for the company he regulated
Massachusetts' Constitution
a state constitution with clear separation of powers but considered to have produced too weak a government
Machine
A party unit that recruits members with tangible rewards and that is tightly controlled by the leadership.
Precedents
Standards or guides based on prior decisions that serve as a rule for settling similar disputes
Dissenting opinion
Justice/justices who disagree with the majority opinion
self-evident truths
universal truths which can be determined by reason; evident to all and stand the test of time
Rule-making process
The formal process for making regulations.
virginia plan
initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature, the lower house to be elected by the voters and the upper chosen by the lower
Establishment Clause
Prohibits the establishment of a national religion-1st amendment
Impeachment
Formal accusation by the lower house of legislature against a public official, the first step in removal from office
whip
A senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking.
Third parties
minor parties which either promote narrow ideological issues or are splinter groups from the major parties.
shay's rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Inoculation Ads
: Advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched
Tax Expenditures
revenue losses due to special exemptions, exclusions, and deductions
Criminal law
cases that derive from criminal laws passed by the federal and state governments.
rational-choice theory
A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives.
bipartisan
A label given if support for something comes from members of both parties.
Revenue Sharing
distribution of part of the federal tax income to states and municipalities
closed rule
issued by the house rules committee; strict time limit for debate in the house and no amendments can be offered
budget resolution
The bottom line for all federal spending.
organizational view
when congress members vote and respond to cues from colleagues
Blog.
A series, or log, of discussion items on a page of the World Wide Web.
Social welfare policy
Government program to enhance quality of life
district courts
Lowest level of fed. courts, where fed. cases begin &trials are held (bank robbery, environmental violations, tax evasion)
unified government
the same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress
Bicameral legislature
a legislature which is divided into two chambers
Trade deficit
An imbalance in international trade in which the value of imports exceeds the value of exports.
Appellate Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. These courts do not review the factual record, only the legal issues involved.
constitutional democracy
A type of government characterized by limitations on government power spelled out in a constitution.
New Democrat
a term created by the Democratic Leadership Council in 1992, it denotes a more conservative, centrist Democrat.
National Convention
The meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
Denied Powers
powers the Constitution denies to the national government
standing committee
permanent committee of the House or Senate that deals with matters within a specified subject area
Poll tax
Tax required to vote; prohibited for national elections by the Twenty-Fourth Amendment (1964) and ruled unconstitutional for all elections in Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections (1966).
frontloading
the recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention and have more power in who presidential candidates will be
routine stories
Media stories about events that are regularly covered by reporters.
Authorization bill
est. discretionary gov't program or an entitlement, or that continues or changes such program (doesn't provide the money though!)
Logrolling
a tactic used in Congress that is best illustrated by one legislator saying to another, "I'll vote for your legislation, if you vote for mine."
Miranda
A Supreme Court case that led to rules that police officers must follow in warning arrested persons of their rights.
amicus curiae brief
Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
Hunt v. Cromartie
2001 SuCo: Gerrymandering on the basis of race is unconstitutional.
Select or special committees
established generally by a separate resolution of the chamber, sometimes to conduct investigations and studies, and, on other occasions, also to consider measures.
writ of habeas corpus
A court order that requires authorities to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person.
Agenda setting
The process of forming the list of matters that policymakers intend to address
White primary
one of the means used to discourage African American voting that permitted political parties in the heavily democratic south to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests. The Supreme Court declared white primaries unconstitutional in 1944.
Environmental impact statement
Statement required by Federal law from all agencies for any project using Federal funds to assess the potential affect of the new construction or development on the environment.
veto
The power of the president to stop a bill passed by Congress from becoming law.
lobbyist
a person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
The legislative process at the national level reflects the intent of the framers of the Constitution to create a legislature that would
be cautious and deliberate.
gramm rudman hollings act
The law provides for automatic spending cuts to take effect if the president and Congress fails to reach established targets in order to keep out of the deficit range. It failed.
Printz v. Untied States
(1997)
The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Bill) required "local chief law enforcement officers" (CLEOs) to perform background-checks on prospective handgun purchasers, until such time as the Attorney General establishes a federal system for this purpose. In both cases District Courts found the background-checks unconstitutional, but ruled that since this requirement was severable from the rest of the Brady Bill a voluntary background-check system could remain.  The Court constructed its opinion on the old principle that state legislatures are not subject to federal direction. In as much as Printz v. United States was about gun control, it would prove to be a setback for those who wanted to limit citizens' rights to own guns under the Second Amendment.
 
 
 
Gregg v. Georgia
1976-- the Sup court upheld the death penalty "an extreme sanction suitable to the most extreme of crimes" up until 1976 the death penalty had been overturned
elite and class theory
A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
President Pro Tempore
Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president
executive office of the president
the cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. office of management and budget, the council of economic advisors, and several other units
one of the differences between criminal law and civil law is that in civil law
criminality is not a charge
Council of Economic Advisors
a three-member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economic policy
war powers act
Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree, is never used
Food and Drug Administration
a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services established to regulate the release of new foods and health-related products
Horse Race Coverage
the tendency of the media to report on an election campaign as if it were a horse race
Creative Federalism and The Great Society
national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally.
School District of Abington Township, Pennsylvania v. Schupp
A 1963 ruling holding that a Pennsylvania law requiring Bible reading in schools violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment.
What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
Congress had few powers outside maintaining an army and navy, had to request money from the states b/c it had no power to tax (states often refused); Congress couldn't regulate commerce (no trade); weak national gov't, all power to the states
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser (1986)
Schools can prohibit the use of vulgar and offensive language.
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