AP Government Vocab 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
No titles of noblity
mass media
Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication.
Electoral votes to be president
rehnquist court
Conservative activist court (1986-2006)
The constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it. A two-thirds vote in each house can override a veto.
12th Amendment
Amendment-Election of President and Vice-President
A form of POLITICAL PARTICIPATION designed to achieve policy change through dramtic and unconventional tactics.
Procedure whereby the state submits legislation to its voters for approval, allowing citizens to vote directly on issues
Prevents filibustering and ends debate in the Senate, by a three-fifths vote of the Senate.
Something that lies beyond the boundaries of a nation-state or consists of several nation-states.
Party Identification
A citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other.
Weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents
Linkage Institutions
political channels through which people's concerns and problems become issues on the policy agenda. These include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
Block Grants
money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington
a tort consisting of false and malicious publication "printed" for the purpose of defaming a living person
Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals cut through bureaucratic regulations (red tape) to get things they want. Link to: incumbency; red tape; pork barrel.
Separation of Powers
The concept that Constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of government
Supremacy Clause
Establishes the national government as supreme.
General election
election in which the officeholders are chosen. Contrast with a primary election, in which only the candidates are chosen
Powers that are shared and divided among federal and sub-divisional government (state/local)
A strategy unique to the Senate whereby opponents of a piece of legislation try to talk it to death, based on the tradition of unlimited debate. Today, 60 members present and voting can halt a filibuster.
Ceremony in which the President takes the oath of office.
Dissenting opinion
Judicial written opinion that is contrary to the ruling of the full court.
delegated powers
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
the Framers were motivated primarily by their pocket books and their fellow upper class people.
Beard Thesis
project grants
federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the bassis of the merits of applications
Blue Dog Democrat
Blue Dog Democrats are moderate-to-conservative members of the Democratic Party who first emerged by name with the support of Republican President Ronald Reagan's tax-cut measures in the early 1980s. The conservative Democrats are seen as the descendants of the Boll Weevil and Dixiecrat Democrats. Such Democrats tend to come from largely conservative and Republican districts who were elected to maintain a conservative and security minded stance while in office.
Merit System
Federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, to which appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations
soft money
money raised by political parties for voter registration drives and the distribution of campaign material at the grass roots level, now banned at the national level.
Federal Election Commission
A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The federal Election Commission administers and enforces campaign finance laws.
direct democracy
government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials more directly
Fighting Words
Words that by their very nature inflict injury on those to whom they are addressed or incite them to acts of violence
judicial activism
A judicial philosophy in which judges make bold policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground. Advocates of this approach emphasize that the courts can correct pressing needs, especially those unmet by the majoritarian political process.
rule of law
all members of society, including rulers, must obey the law
Rules Committee
the �traffic cop� of the House that sets the legislative calendar and issues rules for debate on a bill
Public opinion
A colleciton of shared attitudes of citizens about government, politics, and the making of public policy
natural law
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
formal amendment process
the process of amending the consitution - going through the nomination in Congress or a state legislature and approved by 3/4 state legislatures
reserve requirements
gov requirements that a portion of member banks' deposits must be retained to back loans made.
Concurring opinion
An opinion that agrees with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling but differs on the reasoning.
Pork Barrel
The list of federal projects, grants, and contracts that incumbents secure for their constituents.
total war
A highly destructive total war in which combatants use every resource available to destroy the social fabric of the enemy.
President pro tempore
temporary presiding officer of the Senate.
Party Image
The voter's perception of what the republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism.
Valence Issue
An issue on which voters distinquish rival parties by the degree to which they associate each party with conditions or goals that the electorate universally supports or opposes.
Appellate Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. These courts do not review the factual record, only the legal issues involved.
Green party
A minor party dedicated to the environment, social justice, nonviolence, and the foreign policy of nonintervention. Ralph Nader ran as the Green party's nominee in 2000.
petite jury
Group of people who determine the guilt or innocence of a person on trial.
Candidate Debates
: Forum in which political candidates face each other to discuss their platforms, records, and character
selective perception
the act of paying the most attention to things that one already agrees with or has a predisposition towards.
Federalist Number 10
Madison's essay on "factions" or the influence of political parties and interest groups is used today to discuss access and control.
political participation
All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. Voting is the most common but not the only means of this in a democracy. Other means include protest and civil disobedience.
closed rule
A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that prohibits any amendments to bills or provides that only members of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments.
free rider problem-
the problem faced by interest groups when citizens can reap the benefits of interest group action without actually joining, participating in, or contributing money to such groups.
Judicial Review
The power of the courts to determine wheter acts of Congress, and by implication, the executive are in accord with the US Constitution. Judicial Review was est. by John Marshall and associates in Marbury v. Madison
Reserved powers
powers held by the states through the 10th Amendment. Any power not granted to the US government is "reserved" for the states.
Expert power
when I have knowledge and skill that someone else requires, then I have Expert power.
government corporation
A federal agency that operates like a corporation (following business practices and charging for services) but receives some federal funding.
amicus curiae brief
filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case
Concurrent Powers
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
conditions of aid
Federal rules attached to the grants that states receive. States must agree to abide by these rules in order to receive the grants.
The losing party in a court case who appeals the case to a higher court
unanimous consent decree
Agreement passed by the Senate that establishes the rules under which a bill will be debated, amended, and voted upon.
Grants- in- aid System
money given by national government to states
national party convention
The supreme power within each of the parties. It meets every four years to nominate the party's presidential and vice-presidential candidates and to write the party's platform.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
an interest group that raises funds and donates to election campaigns
brown v board of education
the 1954 supreme court decision holding that school segregation was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the 14th amendment
rally 'round the flag effect
A significant boost in presidential popularity when a foreign crisis arises.
Seniority System
a system that gives the member of the majority party with the longest uninterrupted service on a particular committee the leadership of that committee
Necessary and Proper Clause
Gives Congress the authority to pass laws to carry out the enumerated powers; also called the elastic clause
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
A series of volumes compromising a list of rules for the various departments and bureaucracies.
Scott v. Sandford
ruling that a slave who escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories
The clause of the const. that allows Congress to expand its powers without Const. Amendments is called?
necessary and proper clause.
General Agreement of Tarriffs and Trade
seeks to encourage free trade by lowering tariffs
One of the effects of growing older on political learning and political behavior is that
Political participation increases with age.
6. According to Roe V. Wade, what are the rules regarding abortion by trimester?
First trimester: a women has an unfettered right to an abortion
Second trimester: states may regulate abortions, but only to protect the mother's health
Third trimester: states might ban abortions
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