AP Government Vocab 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
Bureaucracy
a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle, and behaves with impersonality. Bureaucracies govern modern states
Trustee
After listening to constiutents, elected representatives vote based on their own opinions
bicameral
composed of two legislative bodies
Nomination
the official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party. Generally, success in the nomination game requires momentum, money, and media attention.
party identification
A citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other
dealignment
trend in which voters act independently of party affiliation
collective bargaining
Bargaining between representatives of labor unions and management to determine acceptable working conditions.
Fourteenth amendment
the constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "no state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
Legislative Oversight
Congressional monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy; performed mainly through hearings.
National supremacy
Constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government will prevail
continuing resolution
Vehicle for funding government operations at the previous year's level of support when the new budget is delayed.
Hatch Act
a federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics
Continental congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution; they issued the Declaration of Independence and framed Articles of Confederation
Treaty
official agreement between two or more sovereign nations. Many treaties establish terms of peace after a war or conflict, or determine the rules nations must follow in theory relationship with other nations. A treaty creates rights or responsibilities, or restricts existing rights or responsibilities.
Fairness doctrine
Doctrine that required radio and televisin to represent differing opinions. Struck down in 1987
soft money
Funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate.
Minority majority
the emergence of a non-Caucasian majority, as compared with a White, generally Anglo-Saxon majority.
brief-
a document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case
Blanket primary
Registered voters may vote for candidates from either party on the same primary ballot
Regulatory Taking
Government regulation of property so extensive that government is deemed to have taken the property by the power of eminent domain, for which it must compensate the property owners.
Uncontrollable Expenditures
Expenditures that are determined not by a fixed amount of money appropriated by Congress but by how many eligible beneficiaries that are for a program or by previous obligations of the government.
cross-cutting cleavages
Divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous or different.
sunshine laws
required government agencies to open their meetings to the public and the press
grants-in-aid
Money given by the national government to the states
franking privilege
benefit allowing members of Congress to mail letters and other materials postage-free
Impoundment
The President's refusal to spend money Congress has voted to fund a program
Amendment 23
Presidential Vote for District of Columbia
blanket primaries
nomination contests where voters are presented w/ list of candidates from all the parties and allows them to pick candidates from all parties
Gibbon v Ogden
case established the principle that Congress has sole authority over interstate commerce.
National party convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
limited jurisdiction
The federal government has only those powers given to it by the constitution.
media events
Events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless look spontaneous (a "photo op"). In keeping with politics as theater, these can be staged by individuals, groups, and government officials, especially presidents.
majority leader
The principal partisan ally of the Speaker of the House or the party's manager in the Senate. The majority leader is responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments, and rounding up votes in behalf of the party's legislative positions.
elastic clause
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
McCleskey v. Kemp
1987 Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty against charges that it violated the fourteenth amendment because minority defendants were more likely to receive the death penalty than were white defendants.
appropriation
money set aside (as by a legislature) for a specific purpose
Electoral College-
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
government corporation
a government agency that operates like a business corporation created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program
Budget resolution
a bill setting limits on expenditures based on revenue projections, agreed to by both houses of Congress in April each year.
Nineteenth Amendment
Provided women with the right to vote.
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
An international treaty, signed in 1968, that aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
Dissenting Opinion
The Court rationale written to explain why certain justices did not agree with the majority opinion.
defendant
In a criminal action, the person or party accused of an offense.
Those who believe that the Supreme Court in its rulings should defer to the elective institutions of government are advocating
Judicial restraint
suspect classification
Classifications of people on the basis of their race and ethnicity. The courts have ruled that laws classifying people on these grounds will be subject to "strict sc rtiny."
preferred position
the supposed superiority of rights of expression over other constitutional rights
political socialization
Complex process by which people get their sense of political identity, beliefs, and values (family, school, media, religion, national events-all help to socialize)
Roe v. Wade
State laws against abortion were unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Supreme Court decision that established the principle of judicial review.
General Act Charter
applies to cities based on population, certain will be governed by a charter
Bill of Rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
2nd Order Devolution
Flow of power from state governments to local governments.
Declaration of Independence
Document approved in 1776 that stated the grievances with Britain.
discharge petition
a procedure in which the House or Senate can bring a bill that is stalled in committee out on the floor for vote
Incorporated 1st Amendment right of Free Speech to the states, using the 14th Amendment.
Gitlow vs. New York
presidential primaries
Elections in which voters in a State vote for a candidate.
Open Rule
A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that permits floor amendments within the overall time allocated to the bill.
Closed rule
A procedural rule in the House of Representatives that prohibits any amendments to bills or provides that only members of the committee reporting the bill may offer amendments.
private bill
A bill that offers benefit or relief to a single person, named in the bill.
Civil liberties
those rights of the people that are protected by the Bill of Rights.
Federalist Papers
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
McCulloch vs. Maryland
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In deciding this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
22nd amendment
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve
Federal System
: Plan of government created in the U.S. Constitution in which power is divided between the national government and the state governments and in which independent sates are bound together under one national government.
wagner act
an act of Congress (1935) that forbade any interference by employers with the formation and operation of labor unions.
justiciable disputes
a requirement that to be heard a case must be capable of being settled as a matter of law rather than on other grounds.
Simpson-Mazzoli Immigration Act of 1986
Act providing amnesty to certain people , and made employers not higher people who did not have permits to work in America.
Procedual due process
Method of government action, or how th elaw is carried out according to the established rules and procedures
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002
Campaign finance regulations that double the amounts specified by FECA while trying to eliminate soft money contributions. It inadvertently created another loophole for Section 527 contributions.
petit jury
a jury of 6 to 12 persons who determine guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action
Cue (political)
A signal to a member of Congress that identifies which values are at stake in a vote.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Designed to help end formal and informal barriers to blacks right to vote>> led to thousands of blacks registering to vote
In a winner-take-all system
Unless a party wins, there is no reward for the votes it gets.
Federal Election Campaign Act
A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public finance for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
some of the first feminists; organized the seneca falls convention in NY
Sovereign Immunity
The right of a state to be free from a lawsuit unless it gives permission to the suit
4. What was the outcome of U.S. v. Lopez?
-The national government's power under the Commerce Clause does not permit it to regulate matters not directly related to interstate commerce.
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