AP Government Vocabulary 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
crosscutting cleavages
People qualified to vote.
a political scandal involving President Nixon's abuse of his powers.
a written plan of government
American society tends to emphasize
equal opportunities
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders. When this is high, as in the United States, even the losers accept the results peacefully.
political machine
well organized political organization that controls election results
a person active in party politics
Charges against a president approved by a majority of the House of Representatives
Democratic consensus
Widespread agreement on fundamental principles of democratic governance and the values that undergird them.
the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
The idae that Congressional seats should be proportionall based on the population of that state is called?
Gender gap
consistent attitudinal pattern where women are more likely than men to express liberal attitudes and support Democratic candidates
the process of reallocating scats in the House of Representatives every ten years on the basis of the results of the census.
The study of population patterns for polling.
Federally funded medical care for the poor.
26th Amendment
Amendment that extended suffrage to those aged 18-21.
National Security Council
presidential advisory board that consults presidents on matters of defense and foreign policy
Personal liberty
A key characteristic of U.S. democracy; initially meaning freedom from governmental interference, today it includes demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices free from governmental discrimination
Article 4
Article of the Constitution that regulates the states' powers, and their interaction with the National government.
sophomore surge
an increase in votes that congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection
ideological interest group
Political organization that attracts members by appealing to their political convictions or principles.
Sound bites
30-second statements on the evening news shows. The media have been accused of simplifying complicated political issues by relying on sound bites to explain them to the public.
party identification
Feeling connected to a political party.
Imperial presidency
term developed by historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr.; refers to presidents who dominate the political and legislative agenda.
Australian ballot
A government-printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be case in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party-printed ballots cast in public.
margin of error
sample accurately reflects population within a certain range usually plus/minus 3% for sample of more than 1,500
Affirmative action
Remedial action designed to overcome the effects of discrimination against minorities and women.
A document that specifies the basic policies, procedures and institutions of a municipality, similar to a Constitution
New Federalism
Nixon's attempt to return authority to the states.
Executive orders
rules that have the force of law
Restrictive rule
an order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the floor
courts of appeal
Appellate courts empowered to review all final decisions of district courts, except in rare cases. In addition, they also hear appeals to orders of many federal regulatory agencies. Compare district courts.
Implied Powers
powers claimed by Congress which are not specifically enumerated in the Constitution, but are implied in its necessary and proper clause (Article I, Section 8).
policy gridlock
A condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy. The result is that nothing may get done.
Domination of an industry by a single company that fixes prices and discourages competition; also, the company that dominates the industry by these means.
realigning election
An election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties.
joint committee
A committee composed of members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate; such committees oversee the Library of Congress and conduct investigations.
Social contract
an agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
Concurring Opinion
written explanation of the opinion of one or more judges in a court who support the decision of the majority of the court, but do not agree on the basis for the majority decision.
fiscal federalism
the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
Inherent Powers
The powers of the national government in the field of foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government.
natural rights
Basic rights that are guaranteed to all persons; basic rights that a government cannot deny.
Twentieth Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
A person who does not feel affiliation for any party.
national (party) chair
A paid, full-time position that manages a party's day-to-day work. The person who is to fulfill this position is elected by the national committee.
Political Socialization
The process of having your political ideology formed and/or influenced.
A pesticide banned by the EPA in 1972.
The Preamble to the Const. begins?
We the People
1a. An extreme form of skepticism that denies all existence 1b. A doctrine holding that all values are baseless and that nothing can be known or communicated 2. REjection of all distinctions in moral or religious value and a willingness to repudiate all previous theories of morality or religious belief 3. The belif that destruction of existing political or social institutions is necessary for future improvement.
Command economy
a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions
Exclusionary Rule
A rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct
line-item veto
Power held by some chief executives (e.g. governors, the president) to excise some portions of a spending bill without rejecting the entire bill. The purpose of this power is to allow executives to eliminate frivolous appropriations. The president's line-item veto will soon be challenged before the Surpreme Court, where it's fate will be uncertain.
a sharp division, as of a population or group, into opposing factions.
The work taken as a whole appealed "to a prurient interest in sex" (yes, sex) Work showed 'patently offensive' sexual conduct that was specifically defined by an obscenity law. Work lacks a "serious literary, artistic...purpose."
Reserved Powers
powers given to the states that are not enumerated in the US Constitution. According to the Tenth Amendment, "powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
cofederal system
a political system in which the states are sovereign and determine what authority the central government has
Keynesian economics
theory based on the principle of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms
Issue ads
commercial ads on the radio and T.V. for a particular position on an issue, paid by interest groups to influence voters
United States v. Nixon
1974 SuCo: Executive privilege does not give one the authority to hide documents.
monetary policy
manipulation of the supply of money in private hands by which the government can control the economy
national chairperson
Appointed by a committee as head of the party.
National Committee
One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national committee is composed of representatives from the states and territories.
Political action committee
Extention of an interest group that contributes money to political campaigns-financial arm of the interest group
differences from proportional representation in much of Europe
representation split up upon votes
party w/ 40% gets 40% of the seats and etc.
According to the authors of your text, all of the following are concepts and characteristics of American democracy except?
nationalized industries
Search warrant
A writ issued by a magistrate that authorizes the police to search a particular place or person, specifying the place to be searched and the objects to be seized.
Direct Incitement Test
A test articulated by the Supreme Court in Brandenberg v. Ohio (1969) that holds that advocacy of illegal action is protected by the First Amendment unless imminent lawless action is intended and likely to occur.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Supreme Court case that decriminalized abortion.
council-manager government
a city government that is set up like a corporation; the city council is the board of directors, and they hire a city manager similar to a chief executive officer
civic duty
The belief that it is a citizen's duty to vote in order to support democracy.
Writ of certiorari
Order by the Supreme Court directing a lower court to send up the records of a case for review
elite and class theory
a theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upperclass elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
Adarand constructors vs Pena
a 1995 Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional. such programs must be subject to the most searching judicial inquiry and can survive only if they are narrowly tailored to accomplish a compelling governmental interest.
seniority system
a system that gives the member of the majority party with the longest uninterrupted service on a particular committee the leadership of that committee
Jim Crowe laws
State and local laws passed in the post-Reconstruction Era South to enforce racial segregation and otherwise restrict the rights of African Americans.
A three member body appointed by the president to advise the president on economic policy.
Council of Economic Advisers
constitutional government
A regime in which the use of power is limited by law.
albany plan of the union
First proposal for a continental union of the colonies for better political and military organization by Benjamin Franklin. It failed.
the functions of conference committees is to
pass a particular bill in different forms. (House and Senate)
All of the following are consequences of the federal system in the United States EXCEPT
a strict division of power among levels of government.
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