AP Government Vocabulary 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nongovernmental organization.
ability to take initiative
527 groups
non-profit organizations with unlimited campaign money contribution, independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
Due Process
following established legal procedures
Three-Fifths Compromise
offered at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, it was adopted by the delegates and counted every five slaves as three people for representation and tax purposes.
Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that congress authorized and appropriated.
A change made to the Constitution.
states' rights
Powers expressly or implicitly reserved to the states and emphasized by decentralists.
Advisory council for the president, consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other official selected by the president.
Equality in voting
voting must be representative
Public law
includes constitutional law (cases involving constitutional issues), and administrative law (cases involving disputes over the jurisdiction of public or administrative agencies).
The court question: Should the government be allowed to use a quota system to select worker, enroll students, award contracts, or grant licenses? The Bakke decision in 1978 said that the University of California at Davis could not use an explicit numerical quota in admitting minority students but could "take race into account."
symbolic speech
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the first amendment.
Exclusionary rule
prohibits gov't from including illegally obtained evidnece ina trial
middle America
term used to describe mainstream Americans
bilateral agreement
The resulting agreement when two nations create a joint policy.
linkage institutions
The channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, they include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
pocket veto
indirect veto of legislation by refusing to sign it
Ideological Parties
Comprehensive view of American society and government that is redically different from that of the established parties
Great (Connecticut) Compromise
Agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that established a bicameral congress. It gave each state an equal number of senators regardless of its population, but linked representation in the House of Representatives to population.
civil rights policies
Policies that extend government protection to particular disadvantaged groups.
Standards or guides based on prior decisions that serve as a rule for settling similar disputes.
Virginia Plan
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
Civil Service Commission
The first federal personnel agency.
hard money
political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. raising such funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term "hard money"
Committee Clearance
the ability of congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance without passing a law
legislators who feel obligated to use their own best judgment in decision making
The precise legal definition of how government will implement a policy.
Type of government where the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states
candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half (1/3 of presidents have been elected this way)
Civil Disobedience
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
Collective Good
Something of value (money, a tax write-off, prestige, clean air, and so on) that cannot be withheld from a group member.
A standard of right or proper conduct that helps determine the range of acceptable social behavior and policy options.
Conference committee
Committees formed from each house to reconcile the language of a bill as it emerges from the House and the Senate; "iron out" language differences.
policy agenda
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given point in time.
Closed Primary
Only registered party members may vote in the primary (independents, greens, etc...not allowed)
Bad tendency test
interpretation of the first amendment that would permit legislators to forbid speech encouraging people to engage in ilegal action
political ideology
a coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose.
Direct Democracy
Each voter votes directly on every decision the government makes.
sampling error
the level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll. The more people interviewed, the more confident one can be of the results.
Senate motion to end a filibuster that requires a 3/5 vote
Express Powers
Powers specifically granted to one of the branches of the national government by the Constitution.
executive order
The president directs an agency to carry out policies or existing laws.
Private bill
a legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters.
social capital
Mutual trust and habits of cooperation that are acquired by people through involvement in community organizations and volunteer groups.
Blanket primary
election to choose candidates that is open to independents and that allows voters to choose candidates from all the parties
Joint Chiefs of Staff
high-ranking military officers who represent the Navy, Army, Air Force and Marines. They assist the civilian leaders of the Department of Defense-advise the president on security matters.
According to the Presidential Succession Act of 1947, and the 25th amendment, who would succeed the president if the president and the vp died?
Speaker of the House.
voting with one party for one office and another for other offices.
merit system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability
Majoritarian Politics
Leaders who are so sharply constrained by what most people want that the actions of these officeholders will follow the preferences of citizens very closely.
Sixteenth Amendment (1913)
Authorized Congress to impose and collect federal income taxes.
Legislative veto
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power
Internal Revenue Service
the bureau of the Treasury Department responsible for tax collections
Civic duty
The belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should actively participate in the political process.
According to many observers, "the new parent" in the socialization process has become
The mass media.
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by 5 states and important because it issued
3rd amendment
In times of peace, citizens do not have to quarter soldiers (obsolete because of military bases)
Texas v. Johnson
1989 SuCo: Flag burning is symbolic speech, protected by the 1st Amendment.
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution that protect basic human rights.
procedural due process
places limits on the way government may excercise its power over citizens. habeas corpus is an example. government may not act in an arbitraty way, but rather must follow consistent procedures. substantive due process limits the substance of the law itself; places limits on what government may do
The three Branches of government are?
Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.
eminant domain
the power of the government to take private property for public use with fair compensation (payment)
Political Participation
all the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. The most common, but not the only, means of political participation in a democracy is voting. Other means include protest and civil disobedience.
Powers of the president that can be derived or inferred from specific powers in the Const. are known as?
inherent powers
Interstate compact
An agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements.
Caucus (Congressional)
A group of members of Congress sharing some interest or charecteristic. Most are composed of members from both parties from both houses.
Federal Reserve System
main instrument for monetary policy in the US. regulates lending practices of fed. banks and thus the money supply
Random Sample
A sample selected in such a way that any member of the population being surveyed has an equal chance of being interviewed.
Privileges and Immunities Clause
Clause which establishes that a state may not refuse police protection or court access to people from other states.
House Rules Committee
An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bills (except revenue, budget, and appropriations bills) coming from a House committee before they go to the full House.
Marbury v. Madison
A landmark case in United States law and the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States, under Article Three of the United States Constitution. The case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams's Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's and several other men's commissions. Marbury and three others petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The Supreme Court denied Marbury's petition, holding that the statute upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional.
Baker v Carr (1962)
case that established the principle of one man, one vote. This decision created guidelines for drawing up congressional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state.
amicus curiae
an adviser to the court on some matter of law who is not a party to the case
Currency Act of 1764
Forbade the colonies to issue paper money. The colonists saw the British government increasing its control over the colonies against the colonists' will.
Jurisdiction of the district courts .
Federal crimes, Civil suits under federal law, Civil suits between citizens of different state where the amount in question exceeds $50,000 ,supervision of bankruptcy proceedings , Review of the actions of some federal administrative agencies , Admiralty and maritime law cases, and Supervision of the naturalization of aliens
single member district system
System in which the people elect one representative per district. With a winner-take-all rule, this system strengthens the two major parties and weakens minor parties.
Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942)
"Fighting words" are not protected by the First Amendement.
Lobbyists and PACs Campaign finance reform
legislation aimed at placing limits on political candidates accepting money and gifts from individuals and special interest groups.
When did the first great test case take place? Between whom?
1800; between the Federalists (Adams and Hamilton) and the Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson and Madison)
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