AP Government Vocabulary 19 Flashcards

President of the United States
Terms Definitions
Sovereignty
supreme political authority
Scrubber
Complicated/expensive device that removes sulfurous fumes from gas before it leaves a smokestack.
Markup
Committee revisions of a bill.
impeachment
formal accusation against the president or other public official, the first step in removal from office
Creative federalism
developed during President Lyndon Johnson's administration, it was characterized by the Great Society programs which placed a major responsibility on federally funded programs.
referendum
Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution.
Federal register
Official document published every weekday listing new/proposed legislation of executive depts and regulatory agencies
The __________ theorists argue that the power of the few is fortified by an extensive system of interlocking directorates, and that wealthy corporations prevail when it comes to major decisions by government.
Elitist
Federalists
Supporters of ratification of the Constitutionality whose position promoting a strong central government was later voiced in the Federalist party.
Dual primary
where presidential candidates are selected and a separate slate of delegates is also voted on. New Hampshire uses this type of primary.
Formula Grants
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations.
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
Senate Finance Committee
writes the tax code
Teller vote
A congressional voting procedure in which members pass between two tellers, the "yeas" first and the "nays" second.
primary
A public election of delegates for party candidates run by states.
extradition
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
random sampling
The Key technique employed by sophisticated survey researchers, which operates on the principle that everyone should have an equal probability of being selected for the sample.
Campaigners
Vote and get involved in campaign activities
federal question cases
Cases concerning the Constitution, federal law, or treaties over which the federal courts have jurisdiction as described in teh Constitution.
supply-side economics
An economic theory, advocated by President Reagan, holding that too much income goes to taxes and too little money is available for purchasing. The solution is to cut taxes and return purchasing power to consumers.
cabinet
a group of presidential advisors not mentioned in the Constitution, although every president has had one
fiscal federalism
National government's use of fiscal policy to influence states through the granting or withholding of apportionments.
Twenty-seventh Amendment
banned congress from raising its members salaries until after the next election
government
The organization of power within a country.
affirmative action
Remedial action designed to overcome the effects of discrimination against minorities and women.
Sulfur Dioxide
A major cause of acid rain.
safe seat
legislative district in which the incumbent regularly wins by a large margin of the vote
Indictment
A formal written statement from a grand jury charging an individual with an offense; also called a true bill.
Initiative
Process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot.
John Locke
an important philosopher of the English Enlightenment. He believed that the rights to life, liberty, and ownership of property were given by God and could not be taken away by governments. His philosophy influenced the framers of the Constitution.
De jure Segregation
segregation intended or mandated by law or otherwise intentionally arising from state action. (Note: De jure segregation is illegal.)
Selective perception
phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions.
Anti-Federalists
Members of the opposition to the new Constitution; they lost the vote but forced the promise that a set of rights would be added as amendments by the new government. This became the Bill of Rights.
Whips
Leaders who track vote totals and lean on anyone who may be influenced before the vote occurs; target undecided members.
precedents
How similar cases have been decided in the past.
social welfare policies
policies that provide benefits to individuals, particularly those in need
Quid pro quo
Given with expectation of getting something in return
trial balloons
an intentional news leak for the purpose of assenf the political reaction
criminal law
The body of rules defining offenses that, though they harm an individual (such as murder, rape, and robbery), are considered to be offenses against society as a whole and as a consequence warrant punishment by and in the name of society.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 SuCo: Congress has certain implied powers as well as their enumerated powers, and the national government is supreme.
Judicial restraint
philosophy that the court should defer to elected lawmakers in setting policy, and should instead focus on interpreting law rather than making law
Minority Leader
The legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition.
Multiple Referral
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees
international system
The basic structures that affect how states relate to one another, including rules and traditions.
Direct primary
Election within the party to choose their favorite candidate for a particular office
War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
Elastic clause
This clause in the Constitution grants Congress the right to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers specifically granted to Congress by the Constitution. This clause was the source of Hamilton's implied powers doctrine and has been used by "loose constructionists" to increase the powers of the national government.
Categorical Grant
transfers of cash from national to state and/or local governments granted for a specific purpose, usually asking that the state and/or local government match the funds with some of their own.
Sherbert v. Verner
Held that the state's eligibility restrictions for unemployment compensation imposed a significant burden on Sherbert's ability to practice her faith.
Presidential honeymoon
The first several months of a presidency, when reporters are more forgiving than usual, Congress is more inclined to be cooperative, and the public is more receptive to new approaches.
Revenue Sharing
Federal sharing of a fixed percentage of its revenue with the states.
search warrant
Document issued by the courts to allow the police to search private property. TO obatain this, the police must go before a judge and explain (1) where the want to search, and (2) what they are looking for. This also limits where the police may search and what they may take as evidence (Fourth Amendment).
Direct democracy
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
exclusionary rule
the rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure.
Political Culture
An overall set of values widely shared within a society.
Regional Primaries
A proposal by critics of caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with a series of primaries held in each geographic region.
Excise tax
Consumer tax on a specific kind of merchandise, such as tobacco
Powers of the President
chief of state, chief executive, appointment powers, grant reprieves and pardons, wartime powers, proposal and ratification of treaties, executive agreements, passing or denying legislation sign/veto bills, commander in chief of military, makes treaties, appoints government officials
Federal Election Commission
A commission created by the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws. Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information and public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits.
open primary
election in which voters may vote in whichever party primary they choose but must select that party before entering the voting booth
pocket veto
when the president vetoes a bill by refusing to sign it after Congress has adjourned
THe Speaker of the United States House is
John Bahner
civil disobedience
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
High-Tech Politics
A politics of which the behavior of citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped by technology.
Who has the authority to bring impeachment charges?
House of Reps
Socioeconomic status (SES)
A division of population based on occupation, income, and education
First presidential nominee to make an acceptance speech at the party convention
Franklin D. Roosevelt
proportional tax
when gov't takes same share of income from poor and rich
lame duck
A person who has been defeated in a recent election or has announced that he or she is retiring and has not yet been replaced. His or her power usually becomes severely limited.
Preferred postition doctrine
Govt should never punish based on what someone says
random digit dialing
a technique used by pollsters to place telephone calls randomly to both listed and unlisted numbers when conducting a survey.
Normal trade relations
Trade status granted as part of an international trade policy that gives a nation the same favorable trade concessions and tariffs that the best trading partners receive.
Simpson-Marzzoli Act (1987)
act that resulted in more than 2 million illegal aliens who were living in this country since 1982 being allowed to apply for legal status.
in forma pauperis
A method whereby a poor person can have his or her case heard in federal court without charge
writ of certiorari
A legal document issued by the Supreme Court to request the court transcripts of a case. A writ of certiorari indicates that the Court will review a lower court's decision.
Guaranteed equal access to hotels, restaurants, and other public accommodations.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
Lee v. Weisman (1992)
Public schools may not hav clergy lead prayers at graduation ceremonies.
consequences of gerrymandering for the political process
Reduction of competition ☞ low voter turnout
Incumbent advantage
Potentially higher campaign costs
Traveling over large and stretched districts
Television ads must be tailored to different regions in district
Harder for Congressmen to represent districts
what are the 5 basic elements to the US system?
liberty, equality, democracy, civic duty, individual responsibility
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