AP History Review Unit Notecards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Jacob Riis
WHO:Photographer/Muckraker
WHAT:muckraker who was a photographer for New York Evening Sun. He took pictures of the bad conditions. Revealed shocking photos to the public.
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHERE: United States/Cities/NY
WHY: His photographs were so intense that they shocked the national and sparked a spirit for reform.
Initiative, Referendum, Reform
WHO: Progressives/Voters
WHAT: Initiative: Gave people the power to put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting citizen's signatures on a petition.Voters could pass laws without waiting for officials to do it.
Referendum: allowed citizens to approve or reject laws passed by a legislature.
Reform:gave voters the power to remove public servants from office before their terms ended
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHERE: US
WHY: This gave more power to the people and this was an achievement of the Progressives.
Disenfranchisement
Williams v. Mississippi,1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
New Freedom
WHO: Woodrow Wilson
WHAT:limit big business & big government; end corruption & support small business (wants a smaller government than Teddy. Ex. Smaller social welfare)
WHEN: 1912
WHERE: US
WHY: This was the Democratic Platform.
Jane Addams
WHO: Leading Reformer
WHAT:a leading figure in settlement houses. Inspired by work at Toynbee Hall in London (a settlement house). Opened Hull house in Chicago.
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHERE: US
WHY:She inspired many people to become social workers
Niagara Movement
WHO: DuBois
WHAT: started this movement at Niagara Falls, and four years later joined with progressives to form NAACP the new organization
WHEN: 1905
WHERE:
WHY: later led to the drive for equal rights.
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
Compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed It temporarily defused sectional tensions in the United States, postponing the secession crisis and the American Civil War. Also repealed the compromise of 1820.
jay treaty
A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney's Treaty with the Spanish.
Horace Mann
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
Commonwealth V. Hunt
1842 massachusetts supreme judical court upheld the rights of workers to form unions; chief justicle Lemuel Shaw overturned common law precedents ruling that a union was not a inheretly illegal organization and could strike to enforce closed shop agreements
William Sherman
he was an american solider, businessman, educator and author. he served as a general in the Union army during the CW for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth' policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate states. He accepted the surrender of all the confed. armies in NC, SC, GA, and FL.
Robert La Follette
WHO:"fighting bob" "Laboratory of democracy"
WHAT: Under his governing Wisconsin government forced railroads to charge lower fees and pay higher taxes. Improved Wisconsins: education and factories
WHEN: Progressive Era
WHERE: US
WHY: Improved Wisconsins: education and factories
Hammer v. Dagenhart
WHO: Hammer, Dagenhart
WHAT: Court case that questioned if the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act violated the Commerce Clause, the 10th Amendment, or the 15th Amendment
WHEN:1918
WHERE: US
WHY:ruled that the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, that prohibited interstate trade involving commodities produced by children under the age of fourteen, was unconstitutional
16th Amendment
WHO: Government and US citizens
WHAT:Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results
WHEN: 1913
WHERE: US
WHY: This created a fair way of taxing the nation.
Direct Primary
WHO: Voters
WHAT: when voters vote directly candidates who will run for office.
WHEN: N/A
WHERE: US
WHY:Voters were more in charge and they new the candidates would do a good job because if they didn't then they wouldn't get voted back in
Meat Inspection Act
WHO: Government and Meat Plants
WHAT:probed federal agents to inspect any meat sold across states lines and required federal inspection of meat processing plants
WHEN:1906
WHERE: US
WHY: Protected the customers against unsanitary meat.
William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
Cavaliers
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
Colonial agents
These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England and the colonies.
pinckney treaty
agreement between Spain and the United States, fixing the southern boundary of the United States at 31° N latitude and establishing commercial arrangements favorable to the United States. U.S. citizens were accorded free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory as well as privilege of a tax-free deposit. This treaty showed that the U.S. was slowly becoming a world player, as they made a treaty with Britain the previous year.
Patrick Henry
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799). Give me liberty or give me death
Pacific Railway Act
1862 legislation to encourage the construction of a transcontinental railroad, connecting the West to industries in the Northeast (Union Pacific and Central Pacific RR)
Frederick Jackson Turner
historian, he provided the clearest and most influential statement of the vision of the frontier in a memorable paper which he delivered to a meeting of the American Historical Association in Chicago in 1893 entitled "the Significance of the Frontier in American History," His claims included that the experience of expansion into the frontier had stimulated individualism, nationalism and democracy, and kept the opportunity of advancement alive.
Edgar Allen Poe
(1809-1849). Orphaned at young age. Was an American poet, short-story writer, editor and literary critic, and is considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre. Failing at suicide, began drinking. Died in Baltimore shortly after being found drunk in a gutter.
Alice Paul/Woman's Party
WHO: Women's Right Activist
WHAT: The Congressional Women's Party. Was arrested for picketing and then went on hunger strike and got women's suffrage.
WHEN: 1900s
WHERE: US
WHY: She was what ultimately got suffrage through for women.
349. Impressment
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Culperer’s Rebellion
Led by Culperer, the Alpemark colony rebelled against its English governor, Thomas Miller. The rebellion was crushed, but Culperer was acquitted.
Salem witch trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
Munn V. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
treaty of paris 1783
1783 Februrary 3; American delegates Franklin, Adams, John Jays; they were instructed to follow the lead of France; John Jay makes side treaty with England; Independence of the US End of Loyalist persecution; colonies still had to repay its debt to England
stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Personal Liberty Laws
pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North, by giving them the right to a jury trial.
King Phillip's War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
National Urban League
WHO: Blacks and Whites
WHAT: a group that helped blacks that faced discrimination in cities
WHEN: 1910
WHERE:US/ Urban
WHY: Helped blacks in cities
316. Barbary pirates
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
Pennsylvania, William Penn
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on judges who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ.
Battle of trenton and princeton
The Americans', led by George Washington, surprise attack on British troops at Trenton, New Jersey. Washington and his men crossed the icy Delaware River on Christmas Day, 1776, and attacked the next day, completely surprising the British. It was the first American victory of the war, and helped to restore American morale. Princeton= On January 3, 1777, George Washington again crossed into New Jersey, this time outflanking British forces in Princeton. The American army, reduced to 1, 200 men, attacked disorganized British troops at Princeton with modest success. The victories at Trenton and Princeton helped outmaneuver the British conquest of northern New Jersey and marked the turning point of the Revolutionary War.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
treaty of paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
webster ashburton treaty
1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
Robert E Lee
A top graduate of West Point, Lee distinguished himself as an exceptional soldier in the U.S. Army for thirty-two years. He is best known for fighting on behalf of the Confederate Army in the American Civil War.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
345. Pike, Major Long, their observations
Zebulon Pike explored (1805-1807) Minnesota and the Southwest, mapped the region, and spied on the Spanish whenever his exploration took him into their territory. (He was eventually captured by the Spanish, but the U.S. arranged for his release.) Major Long explored the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region (Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado) and concluded that it was a worthless "Great American Desert."
348. Orders-in-council
British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
310. Washington's Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
340. Toussaint L'Overture
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
Brattle Street Church
1698 - Founded by Thomas Brattle. His church differed from the Puritans in that it did not require people to prove that they had achieved grace in order to become full church members.
Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692)
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion
Old Lights, New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
Dartmouth College V. Woodward
1819. New Hampshire tried to take over a college by revising a charter. Charters are protected under the contract clause of the U.S. constitution(marshall)
333. Sec. of Treasury Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was a Swiss immigrant who was a financial genius and served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 - 1814 under Presidents Jefferson and Madison. He advocated free trade and opposed the Federalists' economic policies. Gallatin was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent, and later served as Ambassador to France and to Britain.
Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
Rise of the Lower House
Most of the colonial legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people of the colony and an upper house appointed by the governor. Over time, the lower house became more powerful because it reflected the needs and desires of the people, while the upper house was merely a figurehead.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
battle of lexington and concord
These two battles occurred on the same day. They were the first military conflicts of the war. Lexington was the first one, in which a shot suddenly rang out as minutemen were leaving the scene at Lexington. Fighting then occurred. The British won the brief fight. In the second battle, Concord, the British had gone onto Concord and, finding no arms, left to go back to Boston. On the bridge back, they met 300 minutemen. The British were forced to retreat, and the Americans claimed victory.
320. Supreme Court: Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia.
329. Changes and improvements in transportation and its effect
These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
343. Burr expedition, treason trial
After the duel, Burr fled New York and joined a group of mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico. Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico, but the U.S. believed that they were actually trying to get Mexican aid to start a secession movement in the territories. Burr was tried for treason, and although Jefferson advocated Burr's punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr.
John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
321. Supreme Court: Ware v. Hylton, 1796
A treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain required that all debts owed by the U.S. to Britain had to be paid in full. However, a Virginia statute said that American debts to Britain could be paid in depreciated currency. The Supreme Court upheld the treaty, proving that federal laws take precedence over state laws.
Maryland Act of Toleration (Act of Religious Toleration)
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
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