Between the Wars Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Blitzkrieg
lightning war
Pershing
commander of AEF
Origins
almost all European
winners of ww1
Triple entente
First Modern War
Trenches,Machine Guns,Airplanes,Tanks,Poisonous Gas
alliance
an agreement to cooperate.
Nationalism
patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
An extreme form of this, esp. marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.
Triple Alliance
Italy, Austria, and Germany
Triple Entene
France, Great Britian, Russia
Chateau-Thierry
First significant engagement between Americans and Germans
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
francis ferdinand
archduke of austria-hungary; was assassanated
what country were the balkans protected by?
russia
Devil Dogs
German nickname for U.S. troops
propaganda
ideas or information designed and spread to influence opinion
Reparations
Besides Germany being banned from maintaining a millitary, they were responsible for reparations, or war damages, these amounted to $33 billion
Allied Powers
Countries partnered with other countries to help fight the war.
West Africa
France, Britain, Spain, Portugal staked new colonies. Liberia was only remaining independent state
Triple Entente
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
alliances
agreements between nations to aid and protect one another
Eastern Front
War boundary between Germany and Russia
intrest
payments people receive when they lend or allow people to use their money
Gavrillo Princip
Assassinated Archduke, part of Black Hand, Serbian nationalist
Zeppelin
Were filled with Hydrogen. Used to raid London and Paris early in the war.
English blockade
England illegally seizes and searches neutral ships, confiscates cargoes and mines the North Sea (Germans starve to death)
Which country did not attend the Treaty of Versailles but should have?
Germany
Dissent
disagreement with or opposition to an opinion
indirect rule
colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status
pan-slavism
A movement to promote the independence of Slav people. Roughly started with the Congress in Prague; supported by Russia. Led to the Russo-Turkish War of 1877.
Russian Revolution
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
Armistice
a temporary peace agreement to end fighting
National Defense Act
Law that allowed preparedness. Enlarged the army and the navy.
stalemate
deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other
Rasputin
a man who began to influence the czar's wife, Alexandra, and he often interfered in government affairs
revolt in russia
what proved how inefficient Czar Nicholas II's rule was?
German U-Boat
boat that can go underwater without being seen. led to conflict b/c the uboats torpedoes ships and kille american passengers
germany invades ___ on the way to France
Belgium
war-guilt clause
provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for WWI
Nicholas II
Russian czar who hesitated to mobilize troops after Austria-Hungray declared war on Serbia(bcaz of the assassignation of Ferdinand)
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party in Russia; he created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
Christmas Truce
Soldiers on the Western Front laid down heir arms on Christmas and met in No Mans Land. they played games and exchanged food and cigarettes even though they were on opposing sides.
League of Nations
world organization formed after World War I to maintain peace
von Schlieffen
German General who developed a plan for Germany to fight a two front war. He believed that Germany should concentrate on defeating France first, then use their forces to defeat Russia.
Allies
by 1907, there were 2 major defence allaiances in europe. the triple entante, consisting of France, Brittian, and Russia became known as the Allies. these allainces sparked conflict
Sino-Japanese War
conflict between Japan and China that marked the emergence of Japan as a major world power and demonstrated the weakness of the Chinese empire. The war grew out of conflict between the two countries for supremacy in Korea.
Pancho Villa
for short time Wilson threw support behind him in Mexico then recognized someone else as de facto president; ___ turned on US and tried ot provoke war by killing Ams in raids
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican senator that opposed the Treaty of Versailles and Wilson's League of Nations
Lusitania
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915
Which country did Austria Hungary want for the warm water ports and direct sea access?
Bosnia Herzegovina
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
an heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne who was assassinated by a Serbian
zimmerman telegram
what letter caused US to join the war?
treaty of versailles
most famous WWI treaty; treaty between germany and the allied powers in which germany accepted full responsibility for the war and agreed to pay reparations; the us did not ratify the treaty
2nd Russian Revolution
when Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks took over the Russian democratic government and turned Russia into a communist nation - in October/november 1917
Declaration of War 1917
President Woodrow Wilson, despite his re-election on an antiwar platform, now says "the world must be made safe for democracy."
Selective Service Act
(1917) a law that allowed the president to draft soldiers in times of war
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan to fight a two front war
(postion)trench warfare
a form of warfare in which combatants occupy fighting lines, consisting largely of trenches
Woodrow Wilson
President of the United States for the entire period of the war. Spent the first half of the war in a neutral position, but he was forced to join the war due to submarine warfare and the zimmerman telegraph. He also presented his 14 points as a solution to the war.
which countries used Authoritarian government?
Germany, Russia and Austria Hungary
it was neutral
why did belgium not want to allow german troops to march through?
John J. Pershing
commanded the AEF, and also, in 1916, sent American troops into Mexico to hunt down Francisco "Pancho" Villa
Harlem hell fighters
all black unit of U.S. army, similar to buffalo soldiers, fight in segregated groups, respected on battlefield but not when they came home
(positon) trench war
is a form of warfare in which combatants occupy fighting lines,
consisting largely of trenches, in which troops are largely immune.
america stayed neutral,say why
there were german and irish imigrants that were against the british so america couldn't help britain america was very diverse
national self determination
right of the people to decide how they should be governed
What were the effects of socialism?
many more people were literate, universal suffrage everywhere in Europe, people needed to get their ideas out there
number 6- zimmerman telegram
germany sent a message to mexico to the ambassador.-america retreived this and decoded the telegram and it said that if america came into the war then if mexico joined with germany than after the war they would gelp get california land back for them
What was the First Red Scare?
The term Red Scare denotes two distinct periods of strong anti-Communism in the United States: the First Red Scare, from 1919 to 1920?
What was the Neutrality Act of 1935's goal?
to keep the US at peace
Russia never should have entered WWI, why?
Because they lacked the supplies and government stability.
Germany declared war on Russia on
August 1, 1914 and on France on August 3,1914.
What is meant by the term fighting a two front war?
When Germany fought to the west and east at the same time
Napoleon Bonaparte
french emperor
Bismark
Wilhelm's Prime Minister (Chancellor) - he strengthened Prussia-Germany but wanted peace - lots of alliances. Forced to resign by the new emperor William II
490 B.C.
First Greco-Persian War (marathon)
sanctions
forbidding the sale of certain material to Italy
Convoy
Teams of troops, ships or equipment
Sir James Craig
british council, scalping system
operation overload
u.s. and britain began planning invasion of france
Socialist
person who believes in the political theory supporting collective or government ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods
Robert Fulton
inentor of 1st successful steamboat "clearmont"
No Man Land
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
vichy france
vicky was seat of government, the region where petains rule became
Rationing
a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation fo use
the Balkans
A region in Southeast Europe that Russia and Austria-Hungary tried to dominate. "Powder keg of Europe"
Josef Mengele
"angel of death" doctor @ Auschwitz, would experiment on Jews. Would inject them with diseases, let them die, then dissect them. purpose was to help german soldiers in battle.
Central Powers (Triple Alliance)
Military alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire during the war
battle of somme
A 1916 WWI (1914-1918) battle between German and British forces. Ending in a stalemate, the bitter three-month conflict is notable for the high number of casualties- 1.25 million men killed or wounded - and the first use of tanks in warfare.
Balance of Power
system that prevents any one country from dominating the others
Trench Warfare
Fought in dug out channels below the earth, major type of warfare in the war
d- day
day which an attack is to be launched, june 6 1944
Potsdam Declaration
July 26, 1945 - Truman meets with the other Allies in Germany and warns the Japanese - "Surrender or you will be destroyed!" No response, Truman gives the OK
Legislation that increased war effort efficiency in World War I
Selective Service Act, Espionage and Sedition Act
What problems did Haig face?
-He commanded 5 armies with hundreds of thousands of men -food, logistics, welfare provision and medical services were needed.-Shortages of guns and shells in 1915 carried on into 1916.-New technology was needed-fuse 106 was needed in shells to destroy barbed wire, but most shells did not contain this in 1916.
Sabotage and Sedition Acts
Passed in 1918 made it a crime to say, print or write almost anything negative about the government.
u-boat
submarine
Czar
Russian Emperor
WWI starts US
remains neutral
Fidel Castro
communist leader of Cuba
The ultimatum
Put down all writing/teaching/demonstrating against A-H, fire any officials opposed to A-H, and allow A-H to send her own judges to the trial of those involved with the assassination
Georges Clemenceau
Represented France at Versailles
Mandate
Mandates are territories technically under control of the league of nations
schutzstaffel
SS, "protective force"; chief vehicle of police surveillance, or security units commanded by Heinrich HIMMLER; this group originated in mid 1920s as bodyguard for Hitler and had become a more elite parliamentary organization than the much larger SA
Wilson
dem nominee for 1916 election, campaign: he kept us out of war, won since dem strenght in west and south was stronger than rep strenght in north
Russia
had the most losses in WWI
Kaiser Wilhelm, did what, concerning his throne in 1918
Russia
doughboys
nickname for american troops in europe
Gavrilo princep
Assasinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand in conjunction with the black hand
Mobilization
Getting ready to go to war
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Franz Ferdinand
archduke of Austria from 1883-1914 during WWI
Militarism
a rise in military expenditure, and increase in military and naval forces, more influence of the military men upon the policies of the civilian government and a preference for force as a solution to problems
gavrilo princip
Assassinates Ferdinand on June 28th, 1914
Archduke Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
Which of the following countries was created as a result of the peace settlements that followed the conclusion of WWI
Latvia
alliance system
Before WWI, major European powers signed treaties pledging to protect each other in order to become more powerful and safe.
Moroccan Crisis
British and French make deal, French accept Brit. rule in Egypt, Brit. support French to dominate Morrocco. Germany don't like alliance, don't accept, call international conference, Algeciras Conference of 1906, brings British+French closer together, Germany gets nothing except no friends except for Austria/Hungary. Anglo-French Entente of 1904 settled all colonial issues
all _______ or _______ were banned
imports or exports
Embargo
When a nations refuses to trade with another nation as a means of protest.
Vladimer Lenon
new leader of Russia after the communist rebellion
Isolationist
after WW1, American who wanted the US to stay out of world affairs
Muller vs. Oregon
Lois D Brandeis persuasively argued that poor working women were much more economically insecure than large corporations & convinced the court to uphold an Oregon law limiting women to a 10 hour workday
Lusatania
boat sunck, many people died and also Americans, US said will get involve in the war (may 7, 1915)
cease fire
an agreement to stop fighting a war
When did World War 1 end?
Novermber 11, 1918
Western Front
Germany's quick strike turned into a long and bloody stalemate, or deadlock, along the battlefields of France. This deadlocked region in northern France became known as the _________________.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungary throne and was assassinated by Serbian teenager, Gavrilo Princip
poland
a country that had taken most land of the german and seperated germany from russia.
Canada
went to war in 1914 to support Britain and because they felt it was their duty.
britain and other territories against the ottomans
battle of the dardanelles
Czar Nicholas II
he ordered partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria-Hungary
The last battles of the war took place here.
a.verdun
b.argonne
c.marne
d.ypres
b
Kaiser William II
last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
a rise in the prices of goods is .....
inflation
we could lose territory from treaty of _____ or the _________ ________
paris louisiana purchase
conscientious objector
one who refuses to serve in the armed forces on grounds of conscience
Committee of Public Info
Govt. agency that controlled the flow of information and shaped public opinion about the war with posters.
Purpose of Propaganda in W W I
To influence public opinion
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty where Russia gave up land to Germany
1.The Otto man Empire was collapsing so Balkan Nations were Fighting for independence. 2.Austria and Russia Were fighting to gain control of Balkans Which led to Conflict.
5nd reason For World war
patrolling no man's land
if enemy patrols met, they could fight hand to hand or just ignore one another (using machine gun would cause others to shoot, which means both men would be killed)
What was France's plan?
to wear red pants and bring on a frontal assault on Germany by going straight through
What happened on June 28, 1914?
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophia were traveling through Bosnia when Garrilio Princip assassinated them.
Why did us want to trade during wartime
profited from trading with countries on both sides of the way so...you'd think the us would stay out of the war, but in order to increase the profits for america, continued to trade with countries that were at war. Traded with sets of countries that were against each other.
The major impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany was that the treaty led to
an increase in Germany's desire to regain its power and prestige
Why did many Americans oppose to peace treaty?
Some people said that it was too soft on the deseated powers. Many germans- Americans said that it was to harsh.
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