AP Human Geography 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Adherents
believers, followers
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
Conservation
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
Desertification
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
Gnomonic
map projections that show true distances
context
the geographical situation in which something occurs; the combination of what is happening at a variety of scales concurrently
colonization
colinizer takes over another place, putting its own government in it
push factors
negative conditions and perceptions that induce people to leave their adobe and migrate to a new location
Biomass Fuel
Disposed material or renewable resources (such as compost) used to create energy or agricultural products.
spatial perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
UN
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
directions
the second universal spatial concept, have absolute and relative terms
Fragmented
State A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
structural adjustment loans
loans granted by international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to countries in the periphery and the semi periphery in exchange for certain economic and governmental reforms in that country
rescale
players at other scales support other positions
time-distance decay
the combination of time and distance
cutlural trait
a single attribute of a culture
Hydroelectric Power
Electricity produced by the kinetic energy of water moving over a waterfall or dam.
Relocation diffusion
sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovation by a migrating population
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality
devolution
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
State
An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
GDI
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
Ehrlich
The Population Bomb, _______ made a similar argument about the ability of the earth to sustainably provide resources for an exponentially growing population.
Bid-rent curve
f, Cities that were developed hugely as an effect of the Industrial Revolution
Modernization Model
A model of economic development most closely associated with the work of economist Walter Rostow. The _______ maintains that all countries go through five interrelated stages of developing, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption
physical geography
The spatial analysis of the sturcture of the earth and its features; plants, animals, climate.....
gravity model
a predication of the interaction of places, population size, distance between them
Nonferrous
Do not contain iron and DO NOT RUST-examples, aluminum, tin, copper, and lead are just a few.
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants
epidemic
a disease that is particular to a locality or region
reference maps
maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude
Sharecropper
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Ethnic Cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Shifting Cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
density
The measure of the number of quantity of anything within a defined unit of area
Cognitive Distance
distance people perceive to exist in a given situation. based on personal judgment about degree of spatial separation between points.
Special Economic Zones
Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment
kinship links
types of push or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success
Radioactive Waste
A byproduct of nuclear energy that is highly volatile and dangerous to the population.
five themes (of geography)
developed by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project (GENIP), the five themes of geography are location, human-environment, region, place, and movement
Medical geography
the study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. Among other things, medical geography looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distributions of diseases
Elongated State
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
Redlining
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Generation X
The term _______ was coined by the off-beat author and artist Douglas Coupland to describe a generation without the overwhelming numbers and unifying identity enjoyed by the baby boomers.
Hierarchical Diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
island of development
place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
crude birth rate
the number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
formal region
a type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region
Edge Cities
cities that are located on the on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decetralized suburban environment
Cholera pandemic
Dr. John Snow use dot maps to solve the _____.
Acid Deposition
The return to earth as rain or snow of the sulfate or nitrate salts of acids produced by commercial and industrial activities.
People need food to survive and people have a desire of reproduction
What was Thomas Malthus theory?
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