AP Human Geography Barrons Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dairy
expensive transportation and storage makes it most profitable near larger markets (e.g., NE US and NW Europe).
Modern
sacrifices tradition for practicality & efficiency; reflects advanced technology, comfort, affluence, and suburbanization (most common in US)
Preindustrial
found in societies without sophisticated machine technology, where human and animal labor form the basis for economic production (no city moved past this stage until the Industrial Revolution).
Nodes
geographical centers of activity; large cities have numerous _____.
Metallurgy
(part of 1st agricultural rev.) technique or science of working or heating metals so as to give them certain desired shapes or properties. Predates plant and animal domestication (e.g., gold, silver, copper, tin, iron,...).
Luxury crops
specialized crops typically not essential to human survival; historically grown on plantations by European colonial powers (e.g., tea, coffee, tobacco, cocoa (or cacao), ...).
Biotechnology
(part of 3rd Agricultural Revolution) using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops.
Mediterranean
Sea winds provide moisture and moderate winter; land is hilly with mountains frequently plunging directly into sea. Growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, and tree crops are the main crops, while animals are grown under transhumance - kept on coastal plains in winter and moved to hills in the summer.
Urban sprawl
process of expansive suburban development over large areas; the automobile provides the primary source of transportation.
Sail-Wagon Epoch
(part of Borchert's model) (1790-1830) - associated with low technology
Revitalization
city planners have redesigned their central cities to make them more amenable to people moving in, especially higher income residents.
Village
clustered human settlement larger than a hamlet and generally offering several services.
Steel-Rail Epoch
(part of Borchert's model) (1870-1920); full impact of Ind. Rev. (steel), hinterlands expand
Census Tract
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
Livestock ranching
commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Practiced is semi-arid or arid land, where vegetation is too sparse or the soil to too poor to support crops. Prominent in later 19th century in the American West; ranchers free roamed throughout the West, until the U.S. government began selling land to farmers who outlined their farms with barbed wire, forcing the ranchers to establish large ranches to allow their cattle to graze.
Food manufacturing
the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famine. Allowing the world population to grow about four billion since stared, also allowing populations in developing nations to consume 25% more than before. This increase in diets is questioned by the content in diets; Asian farmers are eating more rice than fish and other vegetables because they can rely on rice to grow efficiently.
Cash crops
crops grown for money; more specifically refers to more specialized crops located mainly in or near the tropics (e.g., sugar, cotton, rubber, bananas, oranges, ...)
Modified-traditional
new building materials used, but no change to the original structure or layout.
Hamlet
lowest level of settlements (often not urban); offers few if any services.
Gateway city
because of their geographic location, they act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas (e.g., NYC, San Francisco, ...).
Waste
many lack of sewer facilities (>3 million w/o in Mexico City); burning garbage heaps
American city
(type of city) suburbanization began largely in the US after WWII (US is the only country in the world in which the majority of the population resides in the suburbs), however, more people have started the process of centralization since the 1990s (moving back into the central cities).
Threshold
the minimum number of customers needed to keep the business running
Cohort
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Immigration
The process of individuals moving into a new country with the intentions of remaining there.
Voluntary migration
Movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area- the opposite of forced migration.
Population geography
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
Caloric intake
often excessive in the core and deficient in the periphery (e.g., >50% of US adult population is overweight, ... >30,000 people starve to death each day worldwide!) (World Bank determines 2,500 calories per day is adequate).
Life expectancy
(infant & child mortality rate) a figure indicating how long an average person may be expected to live. Normally expressed in the context of a state. Relatively high mortality rates may drastically lower___________, as seen in many least developed countries (LDCs).
Mid Atlantic
style originated as a one-room log cabin with a chimney at one end diffusing into Missouri, Arkansas, and Mississippi.
Rice
a commercial grain that is the staple of many Asian nations; China is the largest producer, US is the largest exporter.
Cooperatives
smaller holdings owned by a group of induviduals
Rural settlement
Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
Second Agricultural Revolution
Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th c., that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories. Started in United Kingdom, Netherlands, and Denmark, especially with the Enclosure Act, which consolidated land in Great Britain. Potatoes and corn diffused from America's to Europe, and other resources followed from colonial possessions to Europe.
McMansions
name for house created in where a "tear-downs" once stood
Egalitarian society
civilization in which all people are equal; typical of most hunter-gatherer societies.
Inner city
urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states.
Economic base
ratio of basic to nonbasic workers (nonbasic is always larger).
Multiple nuclei
(1945; Chauncy Harris & Edward Ullman) claimed the CBD was losing its dominant position as the nucleus of the urban area; separate nuclei become specialized and differentiated, not located in relation to any distance attribute (urban regions have their subsidiary, yet competing, "nuclei").
Eastern European city
typically less affluent than Western European cities due to the communist urban planning by the USSR during the Cold War; most residential spaces were organized into microdistricts (designed to minimize cost by reducing roads and maximizing living space).
Racial steering
the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race.
Zero population growth
Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs.
Pull factors
Attractions that draw migrants to a certain place, such as a pleasant climate and employment or educational opportunities.
Doubling time
Time period required for a population experiencing exponential growth to double in size completely.
Debt-for-nature swap
when agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources.
Carl O. Sauer
defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features such as climate and vegetation. "Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result."
Commercialization
transforming of an area of a city into spaces of consumption - areas attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity.
Intervening obstacles
Any forces or factors that may limit human migration.
Demographic accounting equation
An equation that summarizes the amount of growth or decline in a population withing a country during a particular time period taking into account both natural increase and net migration.
Plantation agriculture
based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all were established in or near the tropics - many have been divided into smaller holdings, or reorganized as cooperatives (owned by a group of individuals).
Modern city models (foreign)
most residences tend to decrease in quality and value as the distance from the CBD increases:
Dependency ratio
The ratio of the number of people who are either too old or young to provide for themselves to the number of people who must support them through their own labor. This is usually expressed in the form of n:100, where n equals the number of dependents.
Maternal mortality rate
Number of deaths per thousand of women giving birth.
Von Thunen Model (Von Thünen Model)
(The Isolated State) 1826, Northern Germany. When choosing an enterprise, a commercial farmer compares two costs; cost of the land versus the cost of transporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cost, distance of land to market is critical because the cost of transporting varies by crop. Von Thunen
Concentric zone (1920s; Ernest Burgess)
based on his studies of Chicago: 1) CBD, 2) Zone of transition (residential deterioration & light industry), 3) Blue-collar workers, 4) Middle-class, 5) outer suburban ring; the model is dynamic (as the city grows, the inner rings encroach on the outer ones).
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