AP Human Geography- Agriculture Key Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mediterranean agriculture
Def:An agro-ecological strategy catering to the warm, dry summers and mild winters of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.Ex:This strategy is commonly used in California, and is particularly receptive to fruit and grain growing.
Feedlot
Def:An animal feeding operation, prevalent in factory farms, whose primary goal is to drastically fatten mature animals prior to slaughter.Ex:The world's biggest feedlots are located in the USA, containing hundreds of thousands of cows!
slash-and-burn agriculture
see shifting cultivation; cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegitation has been removed by cutting and burning
Neolithic Revolution
Def:The first agricultural revolution. See "Agricultural Revolutions" card for more details.Ex:n/a
Agricultural Revolutions
Def:The first agricultural revolution was the discovery of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent of Asia, 14,000 years ago. The second agricultural revolution was the industrialization of farming in Europe, during the 17th century. The third agricultural revolution was the introduction of genetic engineering into farming, which started worldwide in the late 20th century.Ex:n/a
Intertillage
Def:The practice of planting taller, stronger crops to shelter lower, more fragile ones from tropical downpoursEx:This mimics the natural structure of the rainforest.
Ridge-tillage
Def:A technique where equipment is used to move soil so the crop row is slightly elevated, resulting in improved drainage and exposure to the sun.Ex:Ridge tillage is fairly common in American farms.
Ranching
Def:The practice of raising grazing livestock for meat or wool.Ex:With the advent of widespread meat consumption, ranching has become very popular among farmers.
Thomas Malthus
Def:An influential British scholar, famous for his theories on demography and political economy.Ex:n/a
Transhumance
Def:The seasonal movement of people with their livestock over relatively short distances, typically to higher pastures in summer and to lower valleys in winter.Ex:This is a major practice in Ireland, thanks to the relatively harsh winters.
livestock ranching
the raising of domesticated animals for the produciton of meat and byproducts (leather, wool)
quaternary economic activity
service sector industires concerned with the collection, processing, and manipuation of information and capital (finance, administration, insurance, legal services)
secondary economic activity
economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
root crops
crops that are reproduced by cultivating either the roots or cuttings from the plants
Green Revolution
the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
Von Thunen's model
Def:A pre-industrial model of agricultural land use where intensive farming is directly outside the city, forest is directly outside the intensive farming area, field crops are directly outside the forest area, and ranching is located directly outside the field crop area.Ex:n/a
Wet rice
Def:The cultivation of rice by planting on dry land, transferring the seedlings to a flooded field, and draining the field before harvesting.Ex:This is very prevalent in India and China through the usage of paddy fields.
Sustainable agriculture
Def:The practice of farming using ecological, non-destructive principles.Ex:Stores like Whole Foods have popularized the sustainable agriculture movement.
Swidden/Slash-and-Burn
Def:The cutting and burning of forests or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture for livestock, or for a variety of other purposes.Ex:This is very prevalent with the South American rainforest.
Agriculture
Def:The science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock; farming.Ex:Most food consumed today is a product of commercial agriculture.
Second Agricultural Revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
primary economic activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment; such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
quinary economic activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill (scientific research, high-level management)
primogeniture
system where the eldest son in a family, or in exceptional cases, a daughter inherits all of the parent's land
longlot survey system
distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Luisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
climatic regions
Areas of the world with similar climatic characteristics
commercial agriculture
term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor fores, and the latest technoloty
Crop rotation
Def:The practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons, in order to lessen soil nutrient depletion.Ex:This technique is employed in ALL farms worldwide.
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
rectangular survey system
Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Def:An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.Ex:GloFish, GM fluorescent fish, are the first GMOs to be sold as pets.
Koppen climatic classification system
Developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitatiion
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