AP Human Geography: People, Place and Culture Flashcards

Terms Definitions
immigration wave
Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.
spatial perspective
Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.
cultural ecology
The multiple interactions and relationships between a cultural and the natural environment.
contagious diffusion
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person - analogous to the communication of a contagious disease.
nomadism
Movement among a definite set of places - often cyclic movement.
periodic movement
Movement - for example, college attendance or military service - that involves temporary, recurrent relocation.
expansive population policies
Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
possibilism
Geographic viewpoint - a response to determinism -that holds that human decision making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. Nonetheless, possibilists view the environment as providing a set of broad constraints that limits the possibilities of human choice.
human-environment
The second theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; reciprocal relationship between humans and environment.
place
The fourth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; uniqueness of a location.
relocation diffusion
Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population.
rescale
Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative (e.g. use of the Internet to generate interest on a national or global scale for a local position or initiative).
spatial interaction
See complementarity (a condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands) and intervening opportunity (the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away).
sequent occupance
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
culture
The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton's definition; hundreds of others exist.
remittances
Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.
forced migration
Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.
population pyramids
Visual representations of the age and sex composition of a population whereby the percentage of each age group (generally five-year increments) is represented by a horizontal bar the length of which represents its relationship to the total population. The males in each age group are represented to the left of the center line of each horizontal bar; the females in each age group are represented to the right of the center line.
perception of place
Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories, or pictures.
cultural landscape
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
environmental determinism
The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism.
cultural diffusion
The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
relative location
The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility, and connectivity affect relative location.
political ecology
An approach to studying nature - society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
isotherm
Line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values.
geographic concept
Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions.
kinship links
Types of push factors or pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success.
doubling time
The time required for a population to double in size.
population composition
Structure of a population in terms of age, sex and other properties such as marital status and education.
human geography
One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
cultural complex
a related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
physical geography
One of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.
absolute location
The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England (a suburb of London).
cultural trait
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban.
functional region
A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it.
perceptual region
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity. For example, in the United States, "the South" and "the Mid-Atlantic region" are perceptual regions.
arithmetic population density
The population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area. The figure is derived by dividing the population of the areal unit by the number of square kilometers or miles that make up the unit.
formal region
A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region.
mental map
Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space.
hierarchical diffusion
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence.
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
Immune system disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weakness set in and other afflictions such as cancer or pneumonia may hasten an infected person's demise.
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