AP Human Geography: People, Place, and Culture 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
epidemic
Regional outbreak of a disease.
transhumance
A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures.
megalopolis
Term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world; formerly used specifically with an uppercase "M" to refer to the Boston-Washington multimetropolitan corridor on the northeastern seaboard of the United States, but now used generically with a lower-case "m" as a synonym for conurbation.
spatial distribution
Physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
cultural hearth
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
globalization
The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across planes and scales.
distance decay
The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction.
gravity model
A mathematical prediction of the interaction of places, the interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them.
chain migration
Pattern of migration that develops when migrants move along and through kinship links (i.e. one migrant settles in a place and then writes, calls, or communicates through others to describe this place to family and friends who in turn then migrate there).
step migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city.
population distribution
Description of locations on the Earth's surface where populations live.
chronic (degenerative) diseases
Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies.
sequent occupance
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
thematic maps
Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
spatial
Pertaining to space on the Earth's surface; sometimes used as a synonym for geographic.
pattern
The design of a spatial distribution (e.g. scattered or concentrated).
relocation diffusion
Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population.
movement
The fifth theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet.
spatial interaction
See complementarity (a condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands) and intervening opportunity (the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away).
rescale
Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initiative (e.g. use of the Internet to generate interest on a national or global scale for a local position or initiative).
laws of migration
Developed by British demographer Ernst Ravenstein, five laws that predict the flow of migrants.
explorer
A person examining a region that is unknown to him.
migrant labor
A common type of periodic movement involving millions of workers in the United States and tens of millions of workers worldwide who cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants, in many instances.
eugenic population policies
Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others.
dot map
Maps where one dot represents a certain number of a phenomenon, such as a population.
pandemic
An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features.
geographic concept
Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions.
geocaching
A hunt for a cache, the Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates which are placed on the Internet by other geocachers.
reference maps
Maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude.
perception of place
Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories, or pictures.
population density
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
stationary population level
The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
independent invention
The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other.
accessibility
The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations. Accessibility varies from place to place and can be measured.
Time-Distance decay
The decline degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
sense of place
State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
activity (action) space
The space within which daily activity occurs.
medical geography
The study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. Among other things, medical geography looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distributions of diseases.
human geography
One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
crude death rate (CDR)
The number of deaths yearly per thousand people in a population.
mental map
Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
physiological population density
The number of people per unit area of arable land.
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