Ap human vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Natality
birth rate, or CBR
Polytheistic religion
worship of many gods
define Malthusian
designating the early-19th-century viewpoint of Thomas Malthus, who argued that population growth was outrunning the Earth's capacity to produce sufficient food.
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Place
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
transnational corporation
conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where headquarters and principal shareholders are located; also called multinational corporation
How many so-called Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics did Russia itself originally locate, designed to give territorial embodiment to some minorities?
16
Judaism
The first major monotheistic religion. Based on a sence of ethnic identity, and its adherents tend to form tight-knit communities wherever they live
Old problems for LDCs
-inadequate infrastructure
-distance from markets
Prime agricultural land
The most productive farmland.
pidgin
language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet
Landscape
Material character of a place, complex of natural featues, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place its form.
Ethnic Neighborhood
Neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitain city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs.
Core
The zone of greatest concentration or homogeneity of the culture traits that characterize a region.
Globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
majority-minority districts
in the context of determining representative districts, the process by which the majority of the population is from the minority.
Approximately how many languages are spoken in the world today?
5-6 Thousand
Lingua franca
An extremley simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for a quick and efficient communication
Race
A group of human beings distingushed by physical traits, blood types, genetic code patterns, or genetically inherited characteristics.
Pelagic species
Species that live near oceanic areas.
Nonferrous
Metals used to make products other than iron or steel.
Net Migration
The difference between the number immigrants and the number of emigrants.
assimilation
the act or process of assimilating; state or condition of being assimilated.
Cultural Diffusion
The expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area.
prime meridian
the meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England, is 0 degrees longitude
Chain migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Transhumance
a system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures
supernational orginazation
a venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. Ex: European Union.
religion
a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities
Longitude
The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitutde, or meridians.
Remote Sensing
The process by which images (captured by electronic equipment in satellites and airplanes) can be used to observe and analyze the Earth's surface.
Systematic geography
The study of the earth's integrated systems as a whole, instead if focusing in a particular phenomena in a single place
Custom
A habitual practice; the usual way of acting in given circumstances
footloose
industries that can locate in a wide variety of places without a significant change in their cost of transportation, land, labor, and capital
Stimulus diffusion
the spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. (Ex- PC & Apple competition)
Thresh
to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
literacy rate
the percentage of people who can read and write
Glocalization
The process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes.
modern English evolved from language spoken by the what
angles, jutes, and Saxons
When cash crops are grown on large estates.
Plantation agriculture
Infant mortality rate
The percentage of children that dies before the age of 1 within a particular area of a country
primate city rule
This rule states that each secondary city following the primate city is a proportion of the population smaller. For example, if the primate city had a population of 10 million people, then the second largest would have 5 million and the third would have 2.5 million.
Functional Region
Area organized around a node or focal point; dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward. Tied to central point by transportation/communication systems or by economic/functional associations.
the map like image that a person carries in mind
mental map
Doubling Time
time it takes for a country to double its population
Location charts
Pn a map, a chart, or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or juridsdiction.
the pop of a country expresses as an average per unit area
arithmetic density
Four most over populated areas
East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Western Europe
Vienna Convention for the protection of the Ozone Layer
Convention held to find ways to protect the Ozone Layer from thinning out.
Secular
non-religious
Polygot
speaking several languages
E-Commerce
Business conducted electronically (buying/selling on web)
Perforated (Boundary)
Boundary that is pierced
mass production
(Fordism) industrial arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers for continuous flow of work pieces in mass production operations. each movement of material is made as simple and short as possible. Important because it allowed for goods to be produced at a rate comparable to the demand for many of those products
commodification
process through which something is given monetary value
homogenization
process in which the distinctiveness of the cultural landscape is diminished
hotelling's model
model dealing with locational interdependence that states that the location of industries can't be understood without reference to the location of industries of like kind. The model shows two vendors that would eventually locate next to each other to maximize profit.
Truck Farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming
Heartland Theory
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Salizination
Accumulation of salt in the soil
Ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
Map
a diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface (or part of it)
Beltway
A circular highway surrounding a city
mixed economy
economic system that incorporates a mixture of private and government ownership or control (mixture of capitalism and socialism)
first-round industrial
industrialization up to WWII. England had comparative advantages to the rest of the world. Industrialization diffused to the rest of Europe, the United States, and Asia
Eastern Asia
primary industrial zone that contains Japan, China, and the "Four Tigers"
Complementarity
When two regions, through trade, can satisfy each other's demands (an interaction from Ullman's conceptual frame)
outsourcing
turning production to another firm or business outside of the country (offshoring)
Primary industry
industries located adjacent to natural resources. Von thunen only dealt with this kind of industry.
backwash effect
when one region's economic gain translates into another region's economic loss
Population Density
number of individuals per unit area
Ethnic Enclave
a neighborhood, district, or suburb which retains some cultural distinction from a larger surrounding area
Seed Planting
the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization
United Nations
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Vegetation Planting
Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
Enclosure System
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Medical Tourism
traveling over seas to receive discounted medical services and vacation simultaneously
Gateway City
Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.
Forward Capital
Capital Moved for political reasons, Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory.
HDI
measure of quality of life using factors like life expectancy, literacy, access to clean water, income, etc.
Animal Husbandry
breeding and caring for farm animals
world systems thoery
theory made by Immanuel Wallerstein that is shown through a three-tier structure (core, semi-periphery, periphery). Exmplains the power hierarchy in which powerful and wealthy core societies dominate and exploit weak and poor peripheral societies.
russia and ukraine
primary industrial zone that was highly developed under Communism
planned economy
communist economic system in whcih a central government determines the prices of goods and services, controls the factors of production, and makes all decisions about their use and distribution of income.
intervening opportunity
presence of a nearer opportunity that diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away (an interaction from Ullman's conceptual frame)
Economic Backwaters
regions that fail to gain from national economic development
Subsistence farming
farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing
Service Sector
that part of the economy which organizes and provides services at an economic cost
Buffer States
a country that separates two politcal enemies
Azimuthal Projection
A map which shows true compass directions; longitude lines are straight and latitude lines are circles; distorts shape and size more toward the outer edges.
Back Offices
A part of most corporations where tasks dedicated to running the company itself take place. Outside the CBD.
Generation X
the generation following the baby boom (especially Americans and Canadians born in the 1960s and 1970s)
Cognitive Map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
Non basic (Job)
A service job for a Community
Basic (Job)
A service job that serves people beyond a community
Language Family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Language Group
a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Vulgar Language
variants of the standard language that have regional accents that can reveal a person's home
Creolization
refers to the process in which a pidgin becomes the native language for a given group
Language Replacement
Replacement of languages by a stronger language
Population Pyramid
A model used in population geography to show the age and sex distribution of a particular population.
Primate City
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
Karma
the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Frontier
Land that lies beyond settled part of country
Transferability
the ease or difficulty in which a good is transported from one area to another (an interaction from Ullman's conceptual frame)
age of mass consumption
stage 5 of the modernization model
global-local continuum
notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale and vice versa
Population Growth Rate
-amount by which a populations size changes over time
-depends on birth (+ increases population) & death (- decreases population)
-emigration: mvmt if ind's out of a population (-)
-immigration: mvmt of ind's into a population (+)
-2 types: exponential & logistic
Intertillage
two or more crops are grown on the same plot of land at the same time (with staggered maturing times)
Kevin Lynch
is an urban planner who created a method for recording people's images of the city. Key elements of mental maps: pathways (routs of frequent travel), edges (boundaries between areas or the outer limits of our image), nodes (strategic junction points), districts (small areas with a common identity), and landmarks (reference points that stand out because of shape, height, color or historical importance). By using these maps, he saw that some parts of the cities were more legible than others and that legibility increases when the urban landscape offers clear pathways, nodes, districts, edges, and landmarks.
Mono Economy
economy of a colony that only produces one or two goods for the mother country
Fall-Line Cities
used to describe the ports that lay upstream on coastal rivers at the point where navigation was no longer possible by ocean-going ships. This is where a river's tidal estuary transitions to an upland stream at the first set of river falls. Because of this, they were common break-in-bulk points
Pidgin Language
When parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary.
International Division of Labor
The process where the assembing procedures for a product are spread out through different parts of the world
Intervening Oppurtunity
an instance where a migrant finds a certain place more appealing than the intended destination
Syncretic Religon
it is when two or many religons combine as one
Bulk-Gaining (Industry)
An industry in which the final product weighs more or has a greater volume than the inputs.
Edge City
City that is located on the outskirts of larger cities and serves many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.
Ester Boserup
Work turned out to be first real opposition to Malthus. Said Malthus did not take technology into account, said we would find alternatives. Made a point that widespread misery forecast by Malthus hadn't occurred. In 1965, published "The Conditions of Agricultural Growth".
Vertical Geography
Building up a city instead of out, like tall buildings.
Delineation
To draw a line where a boundary should be
Capital Flight
The elite shift their funds to more secure foreign locations.
Standard Language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
International Refugee
Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries duting their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country.
standard of living
refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way they are distributed within a population
gross domestic product (GDP)
total value of goods and services produced in a year in a given country.
Thematic Map
A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.
Break of Bulk Point
A place where goods are transferred from one mode of transport to another
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.
physical quality of life index (PQL)
measure of development based on literacy rate, infant mortality rate, and life expectancy at age 1
Mix Crop and Livestock (Farming)
Type of framing where multiple crops and livestock are grown at the same time
Law of Indies
a set of laws that the Spanish used to rule their colonies. it limited what people in New Spain could do. one example is that they had to treat any Native American who converted to Christianity as equal. however, these laws could not easily be enforced.
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