AP Language and Composition Terminology Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
Melancholy
Sadness
aegis
protection; support:
chimerical
unreal; imaginary; visionary:
The pleasant, mellifluous presentation of sounds in a literary work
Euphony
hyperbole
obvious and intentional exaggeration.
Diction
a writer's choice of words
Asyndeton
deliberate omission of conjunctions between a series of related clauses "I came, I saw, I conquered"
A traditional story presenting supernatural characters and episodes that help explain natural events.
myth
volatile
evaporating rapidly; passing off readily in the form of vapor:
sprezzatura
the rehearsed spontaneity, studied carelessness, and well-practiced naturalness that underlies persuasive discourse.
Oxymoron
Two contradictory words in one expression
Tetracolon
a succession of four coordinate items
Inversion
Constructing a sentence so the predicate comes before the
subject. This is a device in which typical sentence patterns are reversed to create an emphatic or rhythmic effect.
Metaphor
a direct comparison between 2 dissimilar things (Your eyes are stars)
Obscure (verb)
To conceal or make indistinct
Omnipotent
having unlimited power, authority, or force
Informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing.
colloquialism
The recreation of regional spoken language, such as a Southern way of speaking. Zora Neal Hurston uses this in such works as Their Eyes Were Watching God.
Dialect
Excessive pride or arrogance that results in a downfall of the protagonist of a tragedy.
hubris
precocious
unusually advanced or mature in development, esp. mental development:
affluence
abundance of money, property, and other material goods; riches; wealth.
rhetor
a master or teacher of rhetoric.
Irony/ironic
The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. In general, there are three major types of __used in language In verbal __, the words literally state the opposite of the writer's (or speaker's) true meaning. In situational _, events turn out the opposite of what was expected. What the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does happen. In dramatic _, the facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work. __ is used for many reasons, but frequently, it's used to create poignancy and humor.
blank verse
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
Euphemism
the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression
concrete detail
strictly defined, concrete refers to nouns that name physical objects
ambivalence - ∴
uncertainty or fluctuation, especially when caused by inability to make a choice or by a simultaneous desire to say or do two opposite or conflicting things.
Ambiguity
allows multiple meanings to coexist in a word or a metaphor; it doesn't mean that it isn't clear but that a good reader can see more than one possible interpretation at the same time
2. Image
A word or phrase representing something that can be seen, touched, tasted,
smelled, or felt.
Allegory
a narrative that functions on a symbolic level (Pilgrim's progress allegorizes the doctrines of Christian salvation)
The relationship an author has toward his or her subject, and/or his or her audience
Attitude
The assigning of Human qualities to inanimate objects or concepts (Wordsworth personifies "The sea that bares her bosom to the moon" In the poem "London 1802".)
Personification
The unique way and author preesents his ideas. Diction, syntax, imagery, structure and content all contribute to this
Style
Genre
The major category into which a literary work fits. Basic divisions: prose, poetry, drama
altruism
the principle or practice of unselfish concern for or devotion to the welfare of others (
apposition
the act of placing together or bringing into proximity; juxtaposition.
gradatio
a rhetorical term for a sentence construction in which the last word of one clause becomes the first of the next, through three or more clauses.
debase
to reduce in quality or value; adulterate:
Rhetorical strategy
strategy describes the way an author organizes words, sentences, and overall argument in order to achieve a discussion of how this term fits into a broader picture of rhetoric.
Atmosphere
The emotional feeling -or mood- of a place, scene, or event
Slang
Refers to a group of recently coined words often used in informal situations. Slang words often come and go quickly, passing in and out of usage within months or years.
Author's purpose
his goal in writing the selection (entertain, instruct, persuade, describe)
Anaphora
one of the devices of repetition in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences
30. rhetorical modes
This flexible term describes the variety, conventions, and purposes of the major kinds of writing. The four most common rhetorical modes (often referred to as "modes of discourse") are as follows:
(a) The purpose of exposition (or expository writing) is to explain and analyze
information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. The
AP language exam essay questions are frequently expository topics.
(b) The purpose of argumentation is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. Persuasive writing is a type of argumentation having an additional aim of urging some form of action.
(c) The purpose of description is to recreate, invent, or visually present a person, place, event or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses in description; good descriptive writing can be sensuous and picturesque. Descriptive writing may be straightforward and objective or highly
emotional an subjective.
d) The purpose of narration is to tell a story or narrate an event or series of events. This writing mode frequently uses the tools of descriptive writing.
Allusion
a reference contained in a work to something outside that work
The use of a quotation at the beginnig of a work that hints at its theme. Hemingway begins The Sun Also Rises with two. One is "You are all a lost generation" by Gertrude Stein
Epigraph
A situation that requires a person to decide between two equally attractive or equally unattractive alternatives.
dilemma
A work that functions on a symbolic level
Allegory
Deviating from normal rules or methods in order to achieve a certain effect.(intentional sentence fragments, for example)
literary license
aloof
at a distance, esp. in feeling or interest; apart:
chronometer
a timepiece or timing device with a special mechanism for ensuring and adjusting its accuracy, for use in determining longitude at sea or for any purpose where very exact measurement of time is required.
denotation
The explicit or direct meaning or set of meanings of a word or expression, as distinguished from the ideas or meanings associated with it or suggested by it; the association or set of associations that a word usually elicits for most speakers of a languag
elucidate
to make lucid or clear; throw light upon; explain:
free verse
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
exemplification - ∫
providing a series of examples - facts, specific cases, or instances - to make the argument clearer and more persuasive
Periodic sentence
presents its main clause at the very end of the sentence for emphasis and sentence variety - this tends to be very formal and oratorical in style and is often meant to emphasize the idea
21. Ellipsis
Omission of a word
"Blow the trumpet in Gibeah, the horn in Ramah."
Point of View
The perspective from which the story is told, and/or the narrative method by which the story is told, e.g., first person, third person, etc.
A work in three parts, each of which is a complete work in itself.
trilogy
A story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate a point.
Anecdote
dogmatic
of the nature of a dogma or doctrine, asserting opinions in an arrogant manner; opinionated
epiphora
The repetition of a word or words at the end of two or more successive verses, clauses, or sentences.
process analysis - ∫
explains how something works, how to do something, or how something was done
Ad hominem
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."
Narration
To tell a story or narrate an event or series of events
metonymy - ℵ
a figure of speech used in rhetoric in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept. (examples: NYC = Big Apple, Pen State = Happy Valley)
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