AP literary and rhetorical terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Declarative sentence
States an idea
listeners or viewers collectively
narrative/narration writing
Tells a story
Writing characterized by gloom, mystery, fear and/or death.
When apparently contradictory terms are grouped together and suggest a paradox.
Simple sentence
Contains one independent clause.
logical interconnection; overall sense or understandability. The property of unity in a written text or a segment of spoken discourse that stems from the links among its underlying ideas and from the logical organization and development of its thematic content
syntactic construction containing a subject and predicate and forming part of a sentence or constituting a whole simple sentence
controlling presence or "authorial voice" behind the characters, narrators, and personae of literature. It is also described as the implied author. The particular qualities of the author's voice are manifested by her or his method of expression (an ironic narrator, a lyric persona), specific language, and so forth
The atmosphere created by the literature and accomplished through word choice.
An author's stance that distances himself from personal involvement.
A particular form of understatement, generated by denying the opposite of the statement which otherwise would be used.
Ordinary or familiar type of conversation.
A folk saying with a lesson
An indirect reference to something with which the reader is supposed to be familiar.
brief statement which expresses an observation on life, usually intended as a wise observation. Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac" contains numerous examples, one of which is Drive thy business; let it not drive thee.A brief saying embodying a moral, a concise statement of a principle or precept given in pointed words. Example: Hippocrates Life is short, art is long, opportunity fleeting, experimenting dangerous, reasoning difficult.
an event, conclusion, statement that is far less important, powerful, or striking than expected. A disappointing, weak, or inglorious conclusion. A noticeable or ludicrous descent from lofty ideas or expressions.
speech or writing showing such perception and expression. The ability to perceive and express in an ingeniously humorous manner the relationship between seemingly incongruous or disparate things
Expression of attitude. expresses the author's attitude toward his or her subject. Since there are as many tones in literature as there are tones of voice in real relationships, , pride or piety-the entire gamut of attitudes toward life's phenomena. Here is one literary example: The tone of John Steinbeck's short novel "Cannery Row" is nonjudgmental. Mr. Steinbeck never expresses disapproval of the antics of Mack and his band of bums. Rather, he treats them with unflagging kindness
the author's use of figurative language, diction, sound effects and other literary devices. Ernest Hemingway's style derives, in part, from his short, powerful sentences. T A way of expressing something (in language or art or music etc.) that is characteristic of a particular person or group of people or period;
the emotional attitude the author takes towards his subject. The atmosphere or feeling created by a literary work, partly by a description of the objects or by the style of the descriptions.
ethical appeal, means convincing by the character of the author. We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect. A rhetoric technique used to directly appeal to an authority in order to strengthen your argument. It is important to notice that ethos does not belong to the speaker, but to the audience.The moral element in dramatic literature that determines a character's action rather than his or her thought or emotion. Persuasion through convincing listeners of one's moral competence
form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion; for example, All humans are mortal, the major premise, I am a human, the minor premise, therefore, I am mortal, the conclusion. Reasoning from the general to the specific; deduction
assert or maintain as a fact:
communication of thought by words; talk; conversation. a formal discussion of a subject in speech or writing, as a dissertation, treatise, sermon. to communicate thoughts orally; talk; converse. to treat of a subject formally in speech or writing.
Smooth movement from one paragraph (or idea) to another.
Repetition or a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row.
Language or dialect of a particular country, language or dialect of a regional clan or group, plain everyday speech.
A story, fictional or non fictional, in which characters, things, and events represent qualities or concepts.
A more agreeable or less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts.
The act of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text.
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
Compound-complex sentence
contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
Complex sentence
Contains only one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of life to a humorous effect.
A generally bitter comment that is ironically worded.
(choice of): used to support or illustrate a point
means persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. We can look at texts ranging from classic essays to contemporary advertisements to see how pathos, emotional appeals, are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument.
A judgment based on reasoning rather than on direct or explicit statement. A conclusion based on facts or circumstances. For example, advised not to travel alone in temperatures exceeding fifty degrees below zero, the man in Jack London's "To Build a Fire" sets out anyway.
the comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Ex. He eats like a pig.
action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding
the use of ambiguous expressions, esp. in order to mislead or hedge; prevarication. a fallacy caused by the double meaning of a word. intentionally vague or ambiguous. Use in a syllogism (a logical chain of reasoning) of a term several times, but giving the term a different meaning each time. For example: A feather is light. What is light cannot be dark. Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.
Grammar. a word, phrase, or clause, usually a substantive, that is replaced by a pronoun or other substitute later, or occasionally earlier, in the same or in another, usually subsequent, sentence.
A comparison of two different things that are alike in some way (see metaphor and simile). is the comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship. The key is to ascertain the relationship between the first so you can choose the correct second pair. Part to whole, opposites, results of are types of relationships you should find. Hot is to cold as fire is to ice OR hot:cold::fire:ice
unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work
the associated or secondary meaning of a word or expression in addition to its explicit or primary meaning: The denotation of a word is its dictionary definition. In literary criticism, a word's denotation is its primary or literal significance, whereas is the range of secondary significance which a word commonly suggests.
The central idea or message of a work.
Explanatory notes added to a text to explain, clarify, or prompt futher thought.
Passive voice
The subject of the sentence receives the action.
The diction used by a group which practices a similar profession or activity.
Active voice
The subject of the sentence performs the action.
An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way.
a saying that is widely accepted on its own merits. Ex. "A friend in need is a friend indeed." "Birds of a feather flock together."
inverted sentence
the subject appears after the verb. This construction causes the subject to receive more emphasis.
periodic sentence
a sentence that is not grammatically complete until its end. Periodicity is accomplished by the use of parallel phrases or clauses at the opening or by the use of dependent clauses preceding the independent clause; that is, the kernel of thought contained in the subject/verb group appears at the end of a succession of modifiers. It is the opposite of a nuclear sentence. effective when it is used to arouse interest and curiosity, to hold an idea in suspense before its final revelation. Ex. "Out of the bosom of the air, out of the cloud folds of her garment shaken, over the woodlands brown and bare, over the harvest fields forsaken, silent and soft, and slow, descends the snow."
of, pertaining to, or arising from the different meanings of words or other symbols: semantic change; contrasts with syntax. Syntax studies the form of the sentence while semantics looks at the meaning of the sentence. When analyzing languages, an analysis can be said to cover both the "syntax and semantics" concerning both the format and meanings of phrases in a language.
dramatic monologue
the occurrence of a single speaker saying something to a silent audience. Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess" is an example wherein the duke, speaking to a non-responding representative of the family of a prospective new duchess, reveals not only the reasons for his disapproval of the behavior of his former duchess, but aspects of his own personality as well.
dominant impression
principal effect the author wishes to create for the audience. a descriptive essay has one If, for example you are describing a snowfall, it is important for you to decide and to let your reader know if it is threatening or lovely; in order to have one it cannot be both. Guides the author's selection of detail and is thereby made clear to the reader in the thesis sentence.
the study of the effective use of language. the ability to use language effectively. In classical oratory, the art of influencing the thought and conduct of an audience.
This device is used to understate the obvious. On a day of extreme weather, like it is really really hot, one might say, "Is it warm enough for you?" or on a very very cold day one might say, "Balmy out isn't it?" Opposite of hyperbole. A statement which lessens or minimizes the importance of what is meant. For example, if one were in a desert where the temperature was 125 degrees, and if one wee to describe thermal conditions saying "It's a little warm today." that would be an understatement
A figure of speech wherein the speaker speaks directly to something nonhuman. In these lines from John Donne's poem "The Sun Rising" the poet scolds the sun for interrupting his nighttime activities: Busy old fool, unruly sun, why dost thou thus through windows, and through curtains call on us? An absent person, an abstract concept, or an important object is directly addressed. Example: how sad steps, O moon, thou climbest the skies. Busy old fool, unruly sun.
A word, phrase, sentence, or series of sentences connecting one part of a discourse to another.
to set forth one's position or opinion on some subject in, or as if in, an editorial. To inject personal interpretations or opinions into an otherwise factual account
A brief quotation which appears at the beginning of a literary work
the omission from a sentence or other construction of one or more words that would complete or clarify the construction, as the omission of who are, while I am, or while we are from I like to interview people sitting down. The omission of one or more items from a construction in order to avoid repeating the identical or equivalent items that are in a preceding or following construction, as the omission of been to Paris from the second clause of I've been to Paris, but they haven't.
a method used to build suspense by providing hints of what is to come
is the use of roundabout language to replace colloquial terms that are considered too blunt or unpleasant. "Passed away" replaces "died, croaked, kicked the bucket"; Upset stomach replaces "puked, yakked, barfed"
that which tends to prove or disprove something; ground for belief; proof. something that makes plain or clear; an indication or sign: His flushed look was visible evidence of his fever.
Verbal irony
When you say something and mean the opposite/something different.
Using words such as "like" or "as" to make a direct comparison between two very different things.
A short poem with a clever twist at the end, or a concise and witty statement.
when one uses a part to represent the whole. Example: Lend me your ears.
classification and division
In a classification essay, a writer organizes, or sorts, things into categories. Division separates items into categories.
digression from topic
a temporary departure from one subject to another more or less distantly related topic before the discussion of the first subject is resumed. A valuable technique in the art of storytelling, also employed in many kinds of non‐fictional writing and oratory.
emotive imagery
: Imagery that is relating to emotion: the emotive aspect of symbols. Characterized by, expressing, or exciting emotion:
extended metaphor
also called a conceit, is a metaphor that continues into the sentences that follows. Also a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
- the usually humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more of its meanings or the meaning of another word similar in sound. pun is a figure of speech which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words or phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. A pun can rely on the assumed equivalency of multiple similar words (homonymy), of different shades of meaning of one word (polysemy), or of a literal meaning with a metaphor. Ex. Romeo says his heart is too sore to soar with his friends at the dance.
The decisive moment in a drama, is the turning point of the play to which the rising action leads. This is the crucial part of the drama, the part which determines the outcome of the conflict.
A reference in one literary work to a character or theme found in another literary work. T. S. Eliot, in "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" alludes (refers) to the biblical figure John the Baptist in the line Though I have seen my head (grown slightly bald) brought in upon a platter, . . . In the New Testament, John the Baptist's head was presented to King Herod on a platter
causal analysis writing
seeks to identify and understand the reasons why things are as they are and hence enabling focus of change activity. links actions or events along a time line, but it differs from process analysis in that it tells us why something happens, is happening, or will probably happen. Therefore, can serve one or more of four main purposes: to entertain, to inform, to speculate, and to argue.
language devices
the variety of tools that writers use to express their thoughts. Ex. Figurative language such as simile, metaphor, personification; sound devices such as alliteration, onomatopoeia, assonance; rhetorical devices such as ethos, pathos, logos, etc.
A figure of speech in which a word represents something else which it suggests. For example in a herd of fifty cows, the herd might be referred to as fifty head of cattle. The word "head" is the word representing the herd. Substituting a word for another word closely associate with it. "Crown" for royalty. also the rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it: for instance, describing someone's clothing in order to characterize the individual. "The pen is mightier than the sword.", "Her voice is full of money."
Attitude of the author/tone
A writer's attitude toward his subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization.
rhetorical strategies and devices
a rhetorical device or resource of language (also called stylistic devices) is a technique that an author or speaker uses to evoke an emotional response in the audience (the reader(s) or listener(s)). These emotional responses are central to the meaning of the work or speech, and should also get the audience's attention. Stylistic devices make your speeches, essays etc. more interesting and lively and help you to get and keep your reader's / listener's attention Ex. Analogy, antithesis, diction, synecdoche, imagery, simile, etc.
figurative language
A way of saying one thing and meaning something else. Take, for example, this line by Robert Burns, My luv is a red, red rose. Clearly Mr. Burns does not really mean that he has fallen in love with a red, aromatic, many-petalled, long, thorny-stemmed plant. He means that his love is as sweet and as delicate as a rose. Language enriched by word meanings and figures of speech (ie, similes, metaphors, personification, hyperbole). Words in figurative expressions connote additional layers of meaning
A word or group of words in a literary work which appeal to one or more of the senses: sight, taste, touch, hearing, and smell.
Imperative sentence
Issues a command.
manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, esp. of the mind: a negative attitude; group attitudes
a conversation between characters
The art of effective communication.
An emotionall violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.
Interrogative sentence
Sentences incorporating interrogative pronouns.
lacking in vitality, imagination, distinction, etc.; commonplace; prosaic or dull: a
a picture, description, etc., ludicrously exaggerating the peculiarities or defects of persons or things: His caricature of the mayor in this morning's paper is the best he's ever drawn. any imitation or copy so distorted or inferior as to be ludicrous . a description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others.
A literary type or form.
To furnish corroborating evidence for:
Making an implied comparsion, not using "like," "as," or other such words.
Parallelism/parallel structure
Sentence construction which places equal grammatical construction near each other, or repeats identical grammatical patterns.
This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
Word choice, particularly as an element of style.
Two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses, or even ideas, with parallel structure.
Abstract Language
Lauguage descirbing ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people or places.
the ironice minimizing of fact, presents something as less significant than it is.
Concrete Language
Language that describes specific, observable things, peoples or places, rather than ideas or qualities.
involves comparing and contrasting two subjects. A comparison shows how two things are alike. A contrast shows how two things are different
the conditional element in a proposition, as "Caesar conquered Gaul," in "If Caesar conquered Gaul, he was a great general."
a character that contrasts with another character, usually the protagonist and, in so doing, highlights various facets of the main character's personality. A character in a play who sets off the main character or other characters by comparison. In Shakespeare's "Hamlet" Hamlet and Laertes are young men who behave very differently.
an extended, uninterrupted speech by one person only. The person may be speaking his or her thoughts aloud or directly addressing other persons, e.g. an audience, a character, or a reader
an elaborate, fanciful metaphor. A far-fetched metaphor when the speaker compares two highly dissimilar things.
In literary criticism, a word's primary or literal significance. The explicit or direct meaning or set of meanings of a word or expression, as distinguished from the ideas or meanings associated with it or suggested by it; the association or set of associations that a word usually elicits for most speakers of a language, as distinguished from those elicited for any individual speaker because of personal experience.
A combination of contradictory terms, such as used by Romeo in Act 1, scene 1 of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet: Why then, O brawling love! O loving hate! Heavy lightness, serious vanity.
The choices in diction, tone, and syntax that a writer makes.
The sentence or groups of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition.
the literal, explicit meaning of a word, without its connotations.
Art or literature characterized by a realistic view of people and the world; sticks to traditional themes and structures.
A terse statement which expresses a general truth or moral principle.
A quotation or aphorism at the beginnning of a literary work suggestive of theme.
The major category into which a literary work fits.
A common, often used expression that doesn't make sense if you take it literally.
The fictional mask or narrator that tells a story.
An exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes.
A comparison to a directly parallel case.
A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.
Compound sentence
Contains at least two independent clauses but no dependent clauses.
Art or literature characterized by an idealistic, perhaps unrealistic view of people and the world, and an emphasis on nature.
An author's choice of words. Since words have specific meanings, and since one's choice of words can affect feelings, a writer's choice of words can have great impact in a literary work. The writer, therefore, must choose his words carefully. Discussing his novel "A Farewell to Arms" during an interview, Ernest Hemingway stated that he had to rewrite the ending thirty-nine times. When asked what the most difficult thing about finishing the novel was, Hemingway answered, "Getting the words right."
device in literature where an object represents an idea. In Willaim Blake's "The Lamb," the speaker tells the lamb that the force that made him or her is also called a lamb: Little lamb, who made thee? Little lamb, i'll tell thee. He is called by thy nam, for he calls himself a lamb;
persuading by the use of reasoning. Giving reasons is the heart of argumentation, and cannot be emphasized enough. An argument based on logos needs to be logical, and in fact the term logic derives from it. Normally implies numbers, polls, and other mathematical or scientific data.
the terminology that relates to a specific activity, profession or group. Much like slang it develops as a kind of shorthand, to quickly express ideas that are frequently discussed between members of a group. In many cases a standard term may be given a more precise or specialized usage among practitioners of a field. Ex. Sailors-bow, stern, deck : Teachers-EOC, IGP, PEP:
Subject-by-subject comparison
essentially write a separate essay about each subject, but you discuss the same points for both subjects. In discussing each subject, you use the same basis of comparison to guide your selection of supporting points, and you arrange these points in some logical order, usually in order of their increasing significance. In longer papers, where many points are made about each subject, this organizational pattern puts too many demands on your readers, requiring them to keep track of all your points throughout your paper
literary work that imitates the style of another literary work. A parody can be simply amusing or it can be mocking in tone, such as a poem which exaggerates the use of alliteration in order to show the ridiculous effect of overuse of alliteration
a sudden, intuitive perception of or insight into the reality or essential meaning of something, usually initiated by some simple, homely, or commonplace occurrence or experience. A literary work or section of a work presenting, usually symbolically, such a moment of revelation and insight. Ex. Rainsford has an epiphany in "The Most Dangerous Game" once he realizes that General Zaroff hunts humans, not animals.
repetition of sentences using the same structure. This line from Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address provides an example:
A piece of literature designed to ridicule the subject of the work. While satire can be funny, its aim is not to amuse, but to arouse contempt. Jonathan swift's "Gulliver's Travels" satirizes the English people, making them seem dwarfish in their ability to deal with large thoughts, issues, or deeds
figure of speech in which something nonhuman is given human characteristics. Ex. Stormy, husky, brawling, city of the big shoulders.
Where animals or inanimate objects are portrayed in a story as people, such as by walking, talking, or being given arms, legs, facial features, human locomotion or other anthropoid form. (This technique is often incorrectly called personification.)
A figure of speech wherein a comparison is made between two unlike quantities without the use of the words "like" or "as." Jonathan Edwards, in his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," has this to say about the moral condition of his parishioners: There are the black clouds of God's wrath now hanging directly over your heads, full of the dreadful storm and big with thunder;
Used for poetic effect, a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a group. : I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet." The repetition of the s sound creates a sense of quiet, reinforcing the meaning of the line
restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewording
could be described as the manipulation of time.is often overlooked and misunderstood by beginning writers, it is one of the key craft elements a writer must master to produce good fiction. Best-selling author Elmore Leonard recommends simply 'cutting out everything, but the good parts. Rhythm is a powerful element in your writing. And you can think of the rhythm of your writing in (at least) two ways. It can be the technique of matching the pace of your copy to the feelings and visuals you intend to create. But you can also think of rhythm as a way to impart a ?musicality? and unpredictability. Consciously using rhythm techniques helps you generate sight, feeling and, yes, even sound images for your reader
a short popular saying, usually of unknown and ancient origin, that expresses effectively some commonplace truth or useful thought; adage; saw. a wise saying or precept; a didactic sentence. a person or thing that is commonly regarded as an embodiment or representation of some quality; byword. Bible. a profound saying, maxim, or oracular utterance requiring interpretation. Ex. "A closed mouth catches no flies."
When the opposite of what you expect to happen does.
Rhetorical question
A question not asked for information but for effect.
The deliberate omission of a word or phrase from prose done for effect by the author.
Placing things side by side for the purposes of comparison.
-A brief story, told or written in order to teach a moral lesson. Christ's tale of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10: 30-7) is an example
The protagonist in a work of fiction is the character with whom the reader is meant to be chiefly concerned; she or he is the main character, who, whether sympathetic or not, is the focus of the plot. A work of narrative or drama may have more than one protagonist. Ex. Romeo and Juliet
harsh or bitter derision or irony. A cutting, often ironic remark intended to wound. Ex. A bad accident occurs and someone says, "Oh, how lovely!"
pathetic fallacy
The attribution of human traits to nature or inanimate objects. A fallacy of reason in suggesting that nonhuman phenomena act from human feelings, as suggested by the word "pathetic" from the Greek pathos; a literary device wherein something nonhuman found in nature-a beast, plant, stream, natural force, etc.-performs as though from human feeling or motivation. In Jack London's To Build a Fire, "The cold of space," London writes, "smote the unprotected tip of the planet, . . ." The word "smote" suggests nature deliberately striking the northern tip of the earth with severe cold.
naturalistic detail
a manner or technique of treating subject matter that presents, through volume of detail, a deterministic view of human life and actions. deterministic theory of writing in which it is held that a writer should adopt an objective view toward the material written about, be free of preconceived ideas as to form and content, and represent with clinical accuracy and frankness the details of life. Factual or realistic representation, especially: The practice of describing precisely the actual circumstances of human life in literature.
A person or force which opposes the protagonist in a literary work. In Stephen Vincent Benet's "The Devil and Daniel Webster,"
The repetition of vowel sounds in a literary work, especially in a poem
the dominant mood or emotional tone of a work of art, as of a play or novel:
Narrative structure
-the internal organization of a poem's content, or the organization of an essay, article, or other piece of literature. Structures may be general to specific, question to answer, pro to con, chronological, problem to solution, cause to effect. Structure can also include the point of view used and the format.
a sermon, usually on a Biblical topic and usually of a nondoctrinal nature. an admonitory or moralizing discourse. an inspirational saying or cliché. n colloquial usage, a moralizing lecture or admonition, or an inspirational saying or platitude
They are groups of lines that have been separated from other groups of lines in the poem
Word or words that create a picture in the reader's mind.
Dramatic irony
When the audience of a drama, play, movie, etc. knows something that the character doesn't and would be surprised to find out.
The "voice" of a poem; not to be confused with the poet him/herself. Analogous to the narrator in prose fiction
The way we speak. A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists
A type of comedy based on a humorous situation such as a bank robber who mistakenly wanders into a police station to hide. It is the situation here which provides the humor, not the cleverness of plot or lines, nor the absurdities of the character, as in situational comedy. A light, humorous play in which the plot depends upon a skillfully exploited situation rather than upon the development of character. foolish show; mockery; a ridiculous sham. humor of the type displayed in such works. Mrs. Doubtfire
a word which makes the reader see the object described in a clearer or sharper light. It is both exact and imaginative. Distinctive epithets are found in the ancient Greek classic, The Odyssey: wine-dark sea...... wave-girdled island," blindfolding night." Our national flag is a star- spangled banner." In "Thanatopsis" Bryant (more poems) speaks of the ocean's "gray and melancholy waste. In literature, a word of phrase preceding or following a name which serves to describe the character. Consider the following from Book 1 of Homer's "The Iliad:" Zeus-loved Achilles, you bid me explain the wrath of far-smiting Apollo.
objective description
- a descriptive essay can be objective or subjective, giving the author a wide choice of tone, diction and attitude. F. A subjective description would include the above details, but would also stress the author's feeling toward the dog, as well as its personality and habits.
point of view
- A piece of literature contains a speaker who is speaking either in the first person, telling things from his or her own perspective, or in the third person, telling things from the perspective of an onlooker. T If the speaker knows everything including the actions, motives, and thoughts of all the characters, the speaker is referred to as omniscient (all-knowing). If the speaker is unable to know what is in any character's mind but his or her own, this is called limited omniscience. An even rarer, but stylish version of second person narration takes the form of a series of imperative statements with the implied subject "you" (Example: Edward's "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God") Choose Your Own Adventure books are also 2nd person point of you because the reader chooses how the text will read.
Parenthetical idea
An idea that is set off from the rest of the sentence.
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