AP Literary Terms 15 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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rough, poorly constructed verse
a witty saying, satirical
informal or regional speech
Black Humor
Disturbing themes in comedy
Using deliberately harsh, awkward sounds.
a metrical unit with stressed-stressed-unstressed syllables
An insincere and/or excessively sentimental demonstration of pathos; like trying too hard and seeming unintentionally funny
An instructive tone meant to give advice or a moral.
Ex: The Zen Parables usually have a moral in their stories. 
Modes of Discourse:
The process of grounding items or subjects.
EX: Oxygen, mercury, and uranium may have different properties, but they are all periodic elements.
the associations and emotional overtones that have become attached to a word or phrase, in addition to its strict dictionary definition.
opposite of hyperbole; intensifies an idea by understatement
A beat or rhythm in poetry
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions.[visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory or olfactory imagery.]
A complete enumeratin of items, arranged systematically, with descriptive details.
a comparison of dissimilar objects without the use of "like" or "as"
incongruity or discrepancy between the implied and expected; verbal, dramatic, situational
parallel structure in which the parallel elements are similar not only in grammatical structure, but also in length: "Climate is what we expect, wheather is what we get."
a writer's intellectual position or emotion regarding the subject of the writing
Diction and Dialect:
A word or expression that is characteristic of a particular geographic area.
Ex: Many "steep" their tea in the North, while in the south they "wet" their tea.
Internal Rhyme
repeats sounds within the line
a recurring image, word, phrase, action, idea, object, or situation used throughout a work (or in several works by one author), unifying the work by tying the current situation to previous ones, or new ideas to the theme. Kurt Vonnegut uses “So it goes” throughout Slaughterhouse-Five to remind the reader of the senselessness of death
Repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order. Moliere: “One should eat to live, not live to eat.” In poetry, this is called chiasmus.
Function: noun Etymology: French or Late Latin; French syntaxe, from Late Latin syntaxis, from Greek, from syntassein to arrange together, from syn- + tassein to arrange 1 a : the way in which linguistic elements (as words) are put together to form constituents (as phrases or clauses) b : the part of grammar dealing with this 2 : a connected or orderly system : harmonious arrangement of parts or elements 3 : syntactics especially as dealing with the formal properties of languages or calculi
when two different words that sound exactly alike are yoked together. "He bolted the door and his dinner."
Round Character
a character who demonstrates some complexity and who develops or changes in the course of a work
D = Dictionary meaning. The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion, attitude, or color
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. Hyperboles often have a comic effect; however, a serious effect is also possible. Often, hyperbole produces irony at the same time.
* Exaggeration is used for emphasis.
Ex. He's 900 years old.
Word that imitates the sound it represents (Ex. splash, wow, gush)
When you're asked to "analyze the language," concentrate on how the elements of language combine to form a whole—how diction, syntax, figurative language, and sentence structure create
a cumulative effect.
consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length.
the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation
a reference to something in literature of history
when one kind of sensory stimulus evokes the subjective experience of another
an extended narrative poem hat tells of the adventures and exploits of a hero that is generally larger than life and is often considered a legendary figure
a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises- the first called "major" and the second called "minor", then with a conclusion.
Major premise: All mammals are warm-blooded.
Minor premise: All black dogs are mammals.
Conclusion: Therefore, all black dogs are warm-blooded
An extended metaphor or simile often yoking together two apparently unconnected ideas
Verbal Irony
implies a contrast or discrepancy between what is said and what is meant
   occurs when an action produces smaller results than expected
the group of citizens who stand outside the main action on stage and comment on it
In poetry, a type of rhetorical balance in which the second part is syntactically balanced against the first, but with the parts reversed. Coleridge: “Flowersare lovely, love is flowerlike.” In prose this is called antimetabole.
Something misplaced in time like a typewriter which has been replaced by a computer.
Words which are inaccurate if interpreted literally, but are used to describe. Similes and metaphors are common forms.
the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.
relies more on emotional appeals than on facts
The act of addressing some abstraction or personification that is not physically present. Oh, Death, be not proud.
use of key words, phrases, or ideas more than once, in close proximity
a break or pause (usually for sense) in the middle of a verse line
The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
A speech spoken by a character alone on stage; convey the impression that the audience is listening to the character's thoughts
A story in which each aspect has symbolic meaning outside the poem.
Deus Ex Machina
Any artificial or improbable device resolving the difficulties of a plot
a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
model of excellence or perfection of a kind: "Skakespear is the God of all poets."
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it
A short narrative poem written in a songlike stanza form.
iambic pentameter
is metrical poetry that consists of five iambic feet per line (iamb, or iambic foot, consists of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable)
repetition of vowel sounds in a series of words
periodic sentence
a sentence that is not grammatically complete until it has reached its final phrase
F oil is a character that contrasts another character, often the protagonist, that therefore highlights certain qualities of the protagonist (or whoever the foil may be). Ex: Don Quixote is the foil to Sancho Panza
has only one or two personality traits. They are one dimensional, like a piece of cardboard. They can be summed up in one phrase.
one of the four forms of discourse which uses logic, ethics, and emotional appeals (logos, ethos, pathos) to develop an effective means to convince the reader to think or act in a certain way.
The comparison of two pairs which have the same relationship. The key is to determine the relationship between the first pair so you can choose the correct second pair. Part to whole, opposites, results of - are types of relationships you should find. Example: hot is to cold as fire is to ice OR hot: cold::fire: ice
repetition in the first part of a clause or sentence of a prominent word from the latter part of the preceding clause or sentence, usually with a change or extension of meaning.
the use of an object to represent or suggest else
An author's use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the story
Continuous form
A poem in which lines follow each other without stanza breaks.
a very short story told in prose or poetry that teaches a practical lesson abouthow to succeed in life.
point of view
 perspective from which the story is told
one in which the main clause comes first, followed by further dependent grammatical units. See periodic sentence. Hawthorne: “Hester gazed after him a little while, looking with a half-fantastic curiosity to see whether the tender grass of early spring would not be blighted beneath him, and show the wavering track of this footsteps, sere and brown, across its cheerful verdure.”
limited point of view
when the knowledge of the storyteller is LIMITED to the internal states of one character.
is a word or phrase, often a figure of speech, that has become lifeless because of overuse. Avoid clichés like the plague. (That cliché is intended.)
a poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or thoughts of the speaker. A ballad tells a story.
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