AP Psych - : Personality Flashcards

defense mechanism
Terms Definitions
Rollo May
-Humanist theorist
-Existentialism
-Free will demands responsibility of actions and causes the burden of accountability
-Anxiety/despair
-This is why so many people blame other people
Albert Bandura
-Social-Cognitive Theorist (bobo)
-Self efficacy
-Triadic Reciprocality (reciprocal determinism)
expectancies
Bandura; personal references; how people write their behavior in a variety of situations to help guide behavior in the future
Personality
individual's unique patterns of thought, feelings, and behavior that persist over time; unique, stable, enduring
fixation
conflicts unresolved in earlier psychosexual stage resurfaces as an adult. gets locked at one stage. (ex. freud and cigars)
ego
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
Type
Refers to especially important dimensions or clusters of traits that are not only central to a person's personality but are found with essentially the same pattern in many people.
repression
- Complete exclusion from consciousness of anxiety-producing thoughts, feelings, or impluses.
- Most basic defense mechanism
Karen Horney
1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends
Psychodynamic Theories
Personality theories that consider behavior to result from psychological dynamics that go on within the individual often beyond conscious awareness
Self-efficacy
According to Bandure, the expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
Archetypes
In Jung's theory of personality, thought forms common to human beings, stored in the collective unconscious
Factor analysis
A statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects; used by Cattell to identify trait clusters
Oedipus/Electra complex
Freud, conflict of psychosexual stages; phallic stage, ages 3-6; consists of a transition in the phallic stage; child competes the same-sex parent were opposite gender parent's attention; can manifest in later personality-male: castration anxiety, dominant, tries to prove self, marries "mom"; female: penis envy, submissive, dates older men (like dad)
phallic stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 3-6 years; focus: genitals; task: Explorer genital region, develop a relationship with parents, especially same gender parent; conflict: Oedipus/Electra complex-child competes with same-sex parents were opposite sex parent's attention; fixations-male-Castration Anxiety-because father possesses mother and therefore has power, dad "castrates" sign (removes power), must prove self, dominant, marries mother figure; female-penis envy-according to Freud penis equals power, submissive, dates older men
sublimation
defense mechanism where you channel your aggressive feelings onto a different activity. example someone who fights in school will excel at soccer in high school
projection
defense mechanism where impulses are disguised by putting the thought onto another thought. someone who critizes people for gossiping is actually a huge gossip themself
self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings. (ie changing "I hate him" to "I love him")
Temperament
The basic and pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and that establish the tempo and mood of the individual's behaviors.
Cardinal traits
Personality components that define people's lives; very few individuals have cardinal traits.
denial
The failure to recognize or acknowledge the existence of anxiety-provoking information
Superego
According to Freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and the ego ideal
compensation
Adler; a person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weakness: inferiority complex or superiority complex
displacement
defense mechanism that puts a sexual or aggressive impulse onto another object or person. example would be slamming the door when mad at your mom, kicking your dog when your friend and you got into a fight
Sigmund Freud
Psychologist who developed the theory of psychoanalysis, believes that our personality comes from our unconscious mind. Explored the idea of sex, aggression, and other basic drives. Looks at early childhood experiences
personality inventories
long questionare where people respond to items that ask about a wide range of feelings and behaviors, designed to assess several traits at once
defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
unconscious
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method, in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Reciprocal determinism
The process in which cognitions, behavior, and the environment mutually influence each other.
Oedipus complex
According to Freud, a largely unconscious process whereby boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age and, at the same time, identify with their fathers.
Alfred Adler
-Downplayed the importance of the unconscious and focused on the ego
-People are motivated by inferiority (fear of failure) and superiority (desire to achieve)
Collective unconscious
In Jung's theory of personality, the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species.
Humanistic personality theory
Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness ofpeople and their striving toward higher levels of functioning
unconditional positive regard
Rogers; experience of being treated with warmth, respect, acceptance, and mob regardless of their feelings, attitudes and behaviors; example: I may not agree with what you do, but I love you can matter what
ego ideal
Freud; ideal of perfection; part of the superego that consists of the standards of what you would like to be
Animus
Jung; male archetype as expressed in a woman; feminine side of man; originates in the collective unconscious; comes from men's experiences with women which combine into the concept of women; shows as an image of feelings/mood
individualism
give priority to one's own goals over others
collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly
Self-actualizing personalities
Healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentials.
16 personality factor question
Objective personality test created by Cattell that provides scores on the 16 traits he identified
Edo Ideal
The part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be.
actualizing tendency
According to Rogers, the drive of ever organism to fulfill its biological potential and tobecome what is ingerently capable of becoming
pleasure principle
Freud; id process by which the id seeks immediate gratification by any means necessary to receive pleasure and avoid pain; done in two ways-which fulfillment (day dream/dreams), ego processes
self esteem
ones feelings of high or low self worth
Martin Seligman
Psychologist who came up with idea of learned helplessness, came up with experiment with dog in electric shocking floor
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test requiring subjects to make up stories that explain ambiguous pictures.
gender identity
our sense of being male or female. our parents can affect this by the way they raise us
Five Factor Model of Personality
-Very stable over time, especially after age 30
-Robert McCrae & Paul Costa
-Obsessiveness, humor, and spirituality are missing from model
internal locus of control
believe you have control over what you do
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