AP Psych: Personality Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
MMPI
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (2), revised in 1980s; objective tests; most widely used object of personality test; originally developed as an aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders; two versions-adult and adolescent
Carl Rogers
-Humanist theorist
-Unconditional positive regard
-Don't hurt others
self-efficacy
Bandura; cognitive social learning theory; expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
William Sheldon
developed endo/ecto/meso morphic idea
rationalization
defense mechanism where we unconsciously give a self-justifying explanation for actions to hide the real reason. so tell yourself there is a more acceptable reason for something so you don't realize how bad the thought is. a parent who sees there child stab animals will tell themself the kid is going to be a doctor so it is ok they are stabbing animals
personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Psychoanalytic theory
Freud's theory of personality.
Julian Rotter
-Social-Cognitive Theorist
-Locus of control
displacement
Emotional impulses are redirected toward a substitute person or object, usually one less threatening or dangerous than the original source of conflict.
Psychoanalysis
The theory of personailty Freud developed as well as the form of therapy invented
Libido
According to Freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct.
Latency period
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 6-12; sexual drive lies dormant, focuses on social nature and development of friendships, seen as period of repression (as sexual drives), all libido energy is poured into school and sports
oral stage
Freud, psychosexual stage of development; age: 0-18 months; focus: oral cavity; task: transition from bottle/breast to solid food; conflict: id derives pleasure from sucking/excepting into mouth; if child fails to complete tasks, (s)he becomes fixated; fixations-underindulged oral-suspicious, sarcastic, pessimistic, trust issues; overindulged oral-clingy, optimistic, gullible, needy
unconscious
prominent in Freudian theory; ideas, thoughts, feelings of which we are not aware normally; basis of psychoanalysis
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance. when we feel the attention is always on us and everyone is judging
sublimation
in psychoanalytic theory, the defense mechanism by which people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities
superego
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
Repression
An unconscious process that excludes unacceptable thoughts and feelings from awareness and memory.
Psychosexual stages
Successive, instinctive patterns of associating pleasure with stimulation of specific body areas at different times of life.
projection
Attribution of one's own unacceptable urges or qualities to others
Projective tests
Personality tests, such as the Rorschach inkblot test; consisting of ambiguous or unstructered material that do not limit the response to be given.
Cognitive-social learning theories
Personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognition, learning, and past experiences, and the immediate learning enviroment
Rorschach test
A Projective test composed of ambiguous inkblots, the way a person interprets the blots is thought to reveal aspects of his or her personality
objective tests
Peronality tests that are administered and scored in a standard way
Genital stage
In Freud's theory of personality development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development which is usually marked by mature sexuality.
inferiority complex
Adler; fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that result in emotional and social paralysis
psychodynamic theories
theories that behavior results from the psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness; linked by Freud
Oedipus complex
during phallic stage, freud's idea that boys develop unconscious sexual desire for mother and hatred/jealousy for their father
erogenous zones
pleasure sensitive areas of the body
reliability
if the personality test logically says what its supposed to
learned helplessness
the hopelessness someone learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. example dog with electric shock floor, one without the button gives up and thinks cant jump over...or word scramble give up when first 2 dont make sense
person-situation controversy
look for genuine personality traits that occur over time and across different scenarios.
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
Ego defense mechanism
Largely unconscious mental strategies employed to reduce the experience of conflict or anxiety.
Phenomenal field
Our psychological reality, composed of one's perceptions and feelings.
Positive psychology
A recent movement within psychology, focusing on the desirable aspects of human functioning, as opposed to an emphasis on psychopathology.
defense mechanisms
- Unconscious strategies that deny/ distort reality but also protect from anxiety and conflict
Anal Stage
Second Stage in Freud's theory of personaliity development, in which a child's erotic feelings center on the anus and on elimination.
personal unconscious
In Jung's theory of personality, one of the two levels of the unconscious; it contains the individual's repressed thoughts, experiences and undeveloped ideas.
big five
type of trait theory; five basic traits: extroversion (where you draw energy from), conscientiousness (dependability), agree ability (how you get along with others), emotional stability (self-explanatory), openness (culture, new experiences)
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
projective personality test; developed at Harvard by Murray and Associates; 20 cards with figures in ambiguous situations; person is asked to interpret the card (tell what is happening, leading up to and following the image); examined for content, language, consistency, organization, and originality
actualizing tendency
Rogers; drive of individual to reach the biological potential or blueprint; capability of what someone can the calm
locus of control
Rotter; cognitive strategies; used to evaluate situations, reinforcement comes in two ways: internal-you control your fate, external-chance & fate, behavior of others determine destiny
type A
type of personality that is more aggressive and controlling
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of looking at the unconscious where a person relaxes and speaks their mind, no matter how embarrassing
Electra complex
counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Compensation
Making up for one's real or imagined deficiencies.
Central traits
According to trait theory, traits that form the basis of personality.
unconditional positive regard
In Rogers' theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of that person's behavior (sue's theory i don't like you right now, but i love you)
Extrovert
aspect used in MBTI; Jung; one of two general attitude types; taken at the interest in the world and events around them, turn attention toward external world; energy is gained from outside or external sources; everyone contains both, one is dominant (extro-, introvert)
self actualization
on maslows hierarchy of needs, it is the top that a person tries to reach throughout their life, when every one of your physical and physiological needs are met, complete fulfillment of ones potential
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely reserached and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes
anal stage, 18-36 months
stage focuses on bowel and bladder elimination. coping with demands for control (potty training)
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
reaction formation
Behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses
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