AP Psychology - Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
electroencephalogram, measures electrical activity in the brain
CAT scan
a sophisticated x-ray
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
overabundance of dopamine is associated with
neurotransmitter associated with mood control
coordinates some habitual muscle movements, such as tracking a target with our eyes or playing the saxophone.
- Early psychologists studied accidents as a way to investigate brain function.
- Accidents resulting in injuries to specific brain areas (such as the Phineas Gage case study) helped psychologists get an idea about the function of each part of the brain.
peripheral nervous system
*Somatic(voluntary movements skeletal)
*Automatic(self regulated actions)
gap between neurons where communication takes place, the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Hypothalamus (secretions)
Secretes neurohormones
Controls the pituitary gland
located above the spinal cord; controls very important functions: coordinates simple movements with sensory information
responsible for receiving the sensory signals coming up the spinal cord and sending them to the appropriate areas of the forebrain.
Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. transmit information from one neuron to another.
wernicke area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
Wernicke's Area
Responsible for comprehension of speech
90% on left side
Small, less than a acubic centiemeter
Larger in murderers by comparison
Structure controls the autonomic functions such as hunger, thirst and body temperature
Four F's:
excitatory neurotransmitters
chemicals released from the terminal buttons of a neuron that excite the next neuron into firing
reticular formation
netlike collection of cells throughout the midbrain that control general body arousal and the ability to focus attention
areas of the cerebral cortex: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.
automatic nervous system
controls heart, lungs, internal organs, glands, and so on. controls responses to stress- the fight or flight response that prepares the body to respond to a perceived threat.
neural cell. made up of specific structures: dendrites, cell body, axon, and terminal buttons.
vital to our memory system. memories are not permanently stored in this area of the brain, however. memories are processed through this area and then sent to other locations in the cerebral cortex for permanent storage.
- Wirelike structure ending in the terminal buttons that extends from the cell body
cerebral cortex
outer covering of the cerebrum
divided in 4 lobes
sex linked disorders
color blind, hemophelia, muscular dystrophy mostly on male phenotype only female are carriers
fragile x
the string of molecules on xchromosomes 1/2 residents in homes of MR female x chromosome twisted
efferent neurons
motor neurons, Neurons which transmit action potentials from the CNS to the effector organs.
glia cells
provide structure & support for neurons
Reflex arc
afferent message travels to spinal cord and efferent message inmmediately returns to muscles by passing the brain.
Myelin Sheath
Insulating material that encases some axons and permits faster communication; prevents random communication (muscle twitch)
structures in the top part of the spinal cord; controls the basic biological functions that keep us alive
The study of neurons which are cells that make up our entire nervous system
right hemisphere
gets sensory messages and controls the motor function of the left half of the body; more active during spatial and creative tasks
left hemisphere
gets sensory messages and controls the motor function of the right half of the body. this may be more active during spoken language, logic, and sequential tasks.
sensory cortex
receives sensations from the bottom of the body, progressing down the cortex to the bottom, which processes signals from our face and head.
- Small area of brain within limbic system
- Vital to our experiences of emotion
Broca's Area
- Located in frontal lobe and responsible for controlling muscles involved in producing speech
- Damage to Broca's area might leave us unable to make muscle movements needed for speech
teminal buttons
(knobs, vesicles, end buttons) end of neuron that secrete neurotransmitters. form junctions with other cells.
Parts of the neuron that recieve info from other neurons and conduct info toward the cell body
functional MRI (fMRI)
combines elements of MRI and PET scans; can show details of brain structure with information about blood flow in the brain, tying brain structure to brain activity during cognitive tasks
association area
any area of the cerebral cortex that is no associated with receiving sensory information or controlling muscle movements
frontal lobes
the prefrontal cortex that acts as the brain's central executive and is believed to be more important in foreseeing consequences, pursuing goals, and maintaining emotional control.
central nervous system
part of the nervous system that consists of our brain and spinal cord. all the nerves are housed within bone (the skull and vertebrae).
Brain Plasticity
- Parts of brain can adapt themselves to perform other functions if needed
- Cerebral cortex is made up of a complex network of neurons connected by dendrites that grow to make new connections
- Since dendrites grow throughout our lives, if one part of the brain is damaged, dendrites might be able to make new connections in another part of the brain that would be able to take over the functions usually performed by the damaged part of the brain
- Dendrites grow most quickly in younger children. Researchers know that younger brains are more plastic and are more likely to compensate for damage
All-or-None Principle
- Neuron either fires completely or it does not fire at all
- If the dendrites of a neuron receive enough neurotransmitters to push the neuron past its threshold, the neuron will fire completely every time
Graded potential
Not enough particles enter the cell to change the charge of the innercelluar fluid to -50 millivolts and the cell doesn't fire. The charge quickly resets to -70 millivolts
brain lateralization (or hemispheric specialization)
specialization of function in each brain hemisphere
Afferent Neurons (Sensory Neurons)
- Neurons that take information from the senses to the brain.
- Afferent neurons are responsible for transmitting neural impulses from the rest of the body to the brain.
Terminal Buttons
small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemical transmissions
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan)
uses magnetic fields to measure the density and location of brain material
cell body (also called the soma)
contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain its life.
Terminal Buttons (also called End Buttons, Axon Terminal, Terminal Branches of Axon, and Synaptic Knobs)
- Branched end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters
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