AP Psychology 115 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
reliability
consistency
conventional
caring for others
Axis II
includes personality disorders.
Narcolepsy
sudden daytime onset, interrupted night.
Edward Tolman
cognitive map/latent learning
-can imagine a map in your mind- rats can
-latent learning=learn something when you get a reward
lens
biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
Catatonic Scizophrenia
immobility, extreme negativeism, repeating anothers speech or movements
glutamate hypothesis
schizophrenia reflects reduced responsiveness of brain to glutamate
Schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by a break down of personality, distorted emotions perceptions and thoughts.
Reactance
The negative response evoked when there is an inconsistency between a person's self-image as being free to choose and the person's realization that someone is trying to force him or her to choose a particular occurrence.
psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
Crystallized Intelligence
Represents cumulated knowledge over the life span of the individual.
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing feelings.
Motor Tasks
involving movements of the muscles.
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of information about space, time, and frequency that occurs without interfering with our thinking about other things
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area, or to Wernicke's area.
Thalmus
sensory switchboard, on top of brainstem directs messages to the sensory recieving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla
Erikson's theory described what type of development?
psychosocial
stimulus
any detectable input from the environment
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 141)
Withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
Color
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color even when changing illumination alters the wavelength rejected by the object
conduction
one type of hearing impairment caused by mechanical problems in the ear structures
confirmational bias
search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
Consciousness
Freud's level of mental life that consists of those experiences that we are aware of at any given time.
deindividuation
when an individual seems to lose himself or herself in the group's identity
Counterconditioning
A technique in which the positive association between a given US and a given CS is replaced with a negative one by the substitution of a new US that has a different UR.
Two-Component Theory of Emotion
Specifies two components: physiological arousal and labeling.
Dysfunctional
Term used to describe behavior that adversely affects an individual's day to day functioning
Discriminative Stimulus
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement.
Gender Typing
The acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine role.
belief bias
the tendency for our preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, making illogical conclusions seem invalid
diathesis-stress model
the theory that certain mental disorders (such as schizophrenia) develop when people with a genetic or acquired vulnerability are exposed to high levels of stress
Neurons
individual cells that are the smallest units of the nervous system
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Panic disorder
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
individualist
culture in which the individual is valued more highly than the group
countertransference
tendency for therapists to relate to clients in ways that mirror their relationships with important figures in their lives
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
intrinsic motivation
promising people monetary rewards for doing what they already enjoy doing is most likely to undermine...
interpreting a new experience in terms of an existing schema
assimilation
Somatic Nervous System
voluntary control of skeletal muscles
when the bell rings, the somatic nervous system reports to your brain state of your skeletal muscles and carries instructions back causing you to get up from your seat
lucid
describes a dream in which the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming and is able to influence the progress of the dream narrative
polarization
when the neuron is at rest; condition of neuron when the inside of the neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside of Enron; is necessary to generate the neuron signal in release of this polarization
SSRI
class of drugs used to relieve anxiety by limiting reuptake of a neurotransmitter
*Occipital Lobe
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
range
is a measure of variation computed as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
hue
the quality of a color as determined by its dominant wavelength
retrograde amnesia
a memory disorder characterized by an inability to retrieve LTM from the past
Type B personality
a personality characterized by an easygoing, relaxed pattern of behavior
Recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
Personal identity
our understanding of ourselves due to who we are as a unique individual
Decay Theory
An explanation for forgetting based on the notion that information in memory will fade and disappear if not used for an extended period of time
anorexia (nervosa)
an eating disorder in which one starves oneself even though significantly underweight
concrete operational
Piaget's stage, ages 7-11, can grasp concepts, perform math, and learn best by working with materials
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 197)
conduction deafness
hearing loss related to problems with the ossicles
Binocular cues
clues about distance based ont eh differing views of the two eyes
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 076)
aptitude test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue encasing a neuron's axon that speeds transmission
Functional fixedness
The inablitiy to perceive a new use for an obj associted w/ a different purpose; a form of mental set
Source Amnesia
Refers to attributing an event to the wrong source. It is at the heart of many false memories.
antisocial personality disorder
a disorder characterized by a failure to conform to standards of decency; repeated lying and stealing; a failure to sustain lasting, loving relationships; low tolerance of boredom; and a complete lack of guilt
Social - Cognitive
referring to the use of cognitive processes in relation to understanding the social world
anterograde amnesia
loss or impairment of the ability to form or store new memories
Criterion Validity
How well test scores correlate with an independent measure of what the test is suppose to assess.
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 183)
one in which the treatment of interest is withheldso that comparison to the experimental condition can be made.
Control condition
computerized axial tomography (CT scan)
creates a computerized image using x-rays passed through the brain
blind spot
a part of the retina through which the optic nerve passes. Lacking rods and cones, this spot is not responsive to light
Which is the correct sequence of stages in Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Peter Thompson (1980)
face recognition is in tuned with eyes and mouth
most portraits from the last five centuries have an eye within 5% of paintings centerline
Molyneux Hypothetical Cube Case
could a perspn born blind (now an adult) distinguish between a cube and a sphere if he could see again?
what would Locke argue?
newest research suggests certain aspects of perception are innate while others are gained through experience
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