AP Psychology 129 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
toilet flushing activity
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dopamine
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
Alpha waves
STAGE 1 drowsy
Carl Rogers
humanistic psychology; Contributions: founded client-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard,
personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
autism
an early-onset developmental disorder characterized by markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction, communication, and the restricted repertoire of activity and interests
Accommodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
biological rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 274)
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 446)
Alzheimer's Disease
(The Notebook). Severe memory deterioration, affecting the hippocampus.
natural selection
the principle that those characteristics and behaviors that help organisms adapt, be fit, and survive will be passed on to successive generations, because flexible, fit individuals have a greater chance of reproduction
arousal
condition in which the sympathetic nervous system is in control
frustration-aggression hypothesis
frustration leads to aggressive behaviour
Cerebral Cortex
Major portion of higher thinking
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
case study
intensive investigation of the behavior and mental processes associated with a specific person or situation
Top-Down Processing
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes.
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
conditioning
generally, learning in which certain experiences make certain behaviors more or less likely; there are two forms of this
Cognition
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 057)
positive, helpful, and constructive and is subject to the same principles of observational learning as is undesirable behavior
prosocial behavior
Selective Inattention
inattentional blindness-failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
change blindness-failing to notice changes in the environment
magicians use change blindness
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works its way up to the brain's integration of sensory information
Imaginary Audience
A cognitive distortion experienced by adolescents, in which they see themselves as always "on stage" with an audience watching
Trichromats
People who can perceive all three primary colors and thus can distinguish any hue.
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
permissive
describes a parenting style that is characterized by the parent making few demands on the child
MRI
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
Long-Term Memory
The relatively permanent and unlimited capacity memory system into which information from short-term memory may pass. It includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Self-Esteem
Refers to an individual's sense of self-worth.
catatonic schizophrenia
a psychotic disorder characterized by bizarre motor behavior which sometimes takes the form of an immobile stupor and waxy flexibility
Cognitive Neuroscience
The interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with perception, thinking, memory, and language.
Punishment
A onsequence designed to decrease the likelihood that the behavior it follows will occur again.
Narcolepsy
A disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods. A person would go directly from wakefulness to REM sleep. It is treated usually with stimulants.
Dementia
a progressive decline to loss of cognitive abilities.
feature detectors
neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli
Absolute Threshold
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.
déjà vu
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 373)
hindbrain
portion of the brain that is responsible for basic life support functions like motor activity, posture, equilibrium and sleep patterns
Reliability
measurement consistency of a test or other type of measurement technique.
Group Polarization
enhancement of a group's prevailing tendencies
occurs when people in a group discuss ideas they favor or oppose
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
excessive anxiety and worry lasting over 6 months, associated with 3 or more of restlessness, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance
primacy effect
the more accurate recall of items presented at the beginning of a series
interneurons
cells in the spinal cord through which reflexes travel without going to the brain
zeignarnik effect
we are more likely to remember unfinished than finished tasks
Sleep Debt
A sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning
Cognitive Development
the study of how mental skills accumulate and change with increasing physiological maturity and experience.
Confirmation Bias
An obstacle to problem solving in which people tend to search for information that supports their preconceptions.
crystallized intelligence
learned knowledge and skills such as vocabulary which tend to increase with age
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder involving a chronic pattern of self- centered, manipulative, and destructive behavior toward others
Escape learning example
motorist learns detours to escape traffic jams
Forebrain
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
cerebellum
the little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
research methods
consist of various approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies
Somatization disorder
A type of somatoform disorder marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin.
Twin Studies
Studies that examine the degree to which concordance rates between co-twins for particular disorders or characteristics vary in relation to whether the twins are identical or fraternal.
encoding
one of the three basic tasks of memory, involving the modification of information to fit the preferred format for the memory system
plasticity
the ability of the brain to adapt to damage by reorganizing functions
Formal operational stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development (beginning at about age 12), during which the individual can think hypothetically, can consider future possibilites, and can use deductive logic
retroactive interference
new info makes harder to recall info learned earlier
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study(except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population)
lucid dreaming
awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening
life expectancy
the number of years that an average member of a species is expected to live
mental representation
the ability to form internal images of objects and events
Aptitude test
A test designed to predict a person's future performance.
Focus of cognitive therapy
helps clients identify and correct faulty styles of thinking
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that regulates bodily processes, such as digestion, that replenish stores of energy.
Light and shadows
patterns of light and dark suggest shadows that can create an impression of three dimensional form
*Motor Cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
Minority Influence
#18, Pg. 713, chpt. 18.
The power of one or two individuals to sway majorities.
autonomic nervous system
controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs
eric kandel and donald hebb
studied sea snails and found that neural connections are made when we learn something new
short term memory aka working memory (2nd box)
storing small amounts of info briefly
-very sensitive to interruption or interference
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