AP Psychology 130 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
behavior
an observable action
Alfred Adler
neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: inferiority complex, organ inferiority; Studies: birth order influences personality
insomnia
problems in falling asleep
Repression
Defense mechanism by which anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings are forced to the unconscious.
Episodic
Stores memory for personal events
schemas
in Piaget's theory, mental representations of the world that guide the processes of assimilation and accommodation
Mood Disorders
psychological disorder characterized by emotional extremes.
hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 065)
Psychologist associated with evolutionary theory of motivation
David Buss
Amygdala
controls emotional response to fear; hormonal secretions. If injured: autism, high anxiety, depression, social blindness
Lawrence Kohlberg
moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
anal stage
Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions
Cross-Sectional Studies
Researchers investigate a diverse sample of people of various ages at the same time.
Anti-psychotic Drugs
Medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
acetylcholine (ACh)
a neurotransmitter that causes contraction of skeletal muscles, helps regulate heart muscles, is involved in memory and also transmits messages between the brain and spinal cord. Lack of ACh is associated with Alzheimer's disease
Placebo Effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone.
Occipital
lower posterior region of the head
debriefing
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed
Behaviorism
The view that psychology...
1. Should be an objective science that 2. Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not 2.
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 164)
school of psychology that emphasized how behavior and mental processes enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
Functionalism
Memes
ideas, fashions, habits which travel by imitation
social and cultural elements
adrenal gland
source of the hormone norepinephrine which affects arousal
bottom-up processing
information processing that begins at the sensory receptors and works up to perception
Decentration
Process of changing from a totally self-oriented point of view to one tha recognizes other people's feelings, ideas, and viewpoints
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
ablation
removal or destruction of brain tissue in a surgical procedure
fMRI
A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it; also know as the i-knew-it-all-along phenomenon
ADHD
an inability to pay attention, often with hyperactivity and poor impulses control.
Iconic Memory
The visual sensory memory consisting of a perfect photographic memory, which lasts no more than a few thens of a second.
Individualism
Giving priority to personal goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification.
teratogens
toxic substances that can harm the embryo or fetus during prenatal development
threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
Example: When exceeding the threshold, the two combined signals (excitatory and inhibitory signals) an action potential.
Insight Learning
Mentally working through a problem until the solution suddenly comes to us
Hallucinations
Participants may be led to experience auditory or visual hallucinations (hear/see things not there, not hear/see things that are).
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
a Swiss-born psychiatrist and the author of the book, on Death and Dying, about near-death studies.
data collection techniques
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
Brainstem
oldest and innermost region of the brain
punishment
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 332)
aqueous humor
colorless, watery liquid that lies between cornea and lens of the eye
Sympathetic
mobilizes bodily resources in time of need. Adrenalin, speeds up heart rate, sweaty palms, etc.
Gender-typing
acquisition of a traditional male or female role
flashbulb memory
an extremely vivid memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
timbre
the quality of a sound determined by the purity of a waveform
Genes
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
cochlea
this coiled structure in the inner ear is fluid-filled and in it the energy from sound waves stimulate hair cells
response chains
scramble the chain of events that leads to an undesired response
Latent Content
The symbolic meaning of objects and events in a dream
Developmental Psychology
the study of the differences and similarities among people of different ages and of the qualitative and quantitative psychological changes that occur across the life span.
Two-Word Stage
Beginning about age 2, children speak mostly in two-word sentences.
corpus callosum
broad band of nervous tissue that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres transmitting information from one side of the brain to the other
Interaction
Occurs when the effects of one factor (such as environment) depend on another factor (such as heredity).
Unconditioned Stimulus
A stimulus that eclicites a response from an organism where no learning or conditioning is necessary.
Frontal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
limbic system
a doughnut shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brain and cerebral hemispheres associated with emotions, fear, aggression, and drives (includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus)
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 367)
forgetting curve
a graph plotting the amount of retention and forgetting over time for a certain batch of material. Steep at first, becoming flatter are time goes on
behavioral view
looks to reinforcement history and the environment for clues into dysfunctional behavior
convergent thinking
a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
Learned Helplessness
The behavior of giving up or not responding to punishment, exhibited by people or animals exposed to negative consequences or punishment over which they have no control
source amnesia
the wrong source is associated to an event experienced
right hemisphere
the unconscious mind; it runs our life (like an autopilot), and intuits things; involved with perceptual (brain waves, bloodflow, etc) tasks.
control group
the group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
locus of control
a term referring to the expectancy that one's reinforcements are generally controlled by internal or external factors
infancy
spans the time beween the end of the neonatal period and the establishment of th language- usually at about 18 months to 2 years
Predictive validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict.
Focus of cognitive- behavioral therapy
changing both maladaptive cognitions and overt behaviors
Receptor Site
A site on the receiving neuron in which neurotransmitters dock.
construct validity
The extent to which the evidence shows that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct (hypothetical construct: abstract qualities such as creativity). Examines the correlations between test and various measures related to the trait in question.
frequency polygon
the scores are displayed on the x and the frequency on the y, instead of a rectangular bar a single point is used to designate the frequency of each score. adjacent points are then connected with straight lines
Mood Linkage
#7, Pg. 703, chpt. 18.
Sharing up and down moods.
Identity vs Role Confusion
crisis, knowing your place or unable to fit in with a specific type of people
E.L. Thorndike law of effect
the probability of a response is altered by the effect it has; responses that lead to desired effects are repeated; those that lead to undesired effects are not
Areas of the Brain Affecting Sleep
ARAS; pons; and specific areas in the medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system. The flow of wake and sleep is regulated through activity in a constellation of interacting brain centers.
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