AP Psychology 139 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The first menstruation.
Loss of explicit memory.
falling or staying asleep
proactive interference
previously learned information interferes with the ability to learn new information
One must reproduce previous information
Behavior Therapy
classical and operant conditioning
eating disorder characterized by excessive eating followed by purging
external locus of control
learned helplessness
form of scientific investigation in which one variable is tested to determine its effect on another
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
school of psychological thought that was concerned with how and why the conscious mind works
A strong and relatively long-lasting emotional tie.
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 687)
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
acetylcholine (ACh)
a neurotransmitter found throughout the nervous system that links the motor neurons and muscles
located near the medulla; produces chemicals that help maintain our sleep-wake cycle; transmits messages to upper areas of the brain
Anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep. A person who awakens from a nightmare usually recalls a vivid dream and may have trouble getting back to sleep. Treatment is usually unnecessary, but persistent nightmares may be a sign for a need for counseling.
a neurotransmitter that is associated with Parkinson's disease (too little of it) and schizophrenia (too much of it)
morphine within- natural, opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
A severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior.
Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychologists are concerned with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with psychological disorders, as well as treatment of less severe behavioral and emotional problems. Principle activities include interviewing clients, psychological testing, and providing group or individual psychotherapy.
top of the brainstem
brain's sensory switchboard
receives information from all senses except smell
ganglion cells
their axons form the optic nerve
Secondary Reinforcer
Any neutral stimulus that initially has no intrinsic value for an organism but that becomes rewarding when linked with a primary reinforcer
Any chemical substance that, in small amounts, alters biological or cognitive processes or both
the science of behavior and mental processes
in language, study of meanings of words
The ability of an individual to function well in the face of adversity.
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
a dissociative disorder in which a person forgets his or her current life and starts a new one somewhere else
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Group Polarization
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
aversion therapy
a behavioral therapy technique for classically conditioning people to react with aversion to alcohol and other harmful substance
Disorganized Schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia characterized by severely disturbed thought processes, frequent incoherence, disorganized behavior, and inappropriate affect.
Control Condition
of an experiment that contrasts w/experiment and serves as comparison
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
Somatoform Disorders
a mental disorder characterized by physical symptoms that suggest physical illness or injury - symptoms that cannot be explained fully by a general medical condition, direct effect of a substance, or attributable to another mental disorder (i.e. panic disorder). The symptoms that result from a somatoform disorder are due to mental factors
endocrine system
collection of glands that secrete hormones into the blood which regulate growth, development, and homeostasis
Hypnotic suggestibility
related to subject's openness to suggestion/ imagination
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)
applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect forms
External ear
consists of Pinna: sound collecting cone. Eardrum: sound waves collected by pinna are funneled to the auditory canal toward the eardrum, a taut membrane that vibrates in response.
Infamous serial killer believed that pronography contributed to violent crime
Ted Bundy
behavior ends when reward is no longer offered
Plateau phase
the second phase of the sexual response cycle, during which physical arousal continues to increase as the partners bodies prepare for orgasm
Resting potential
The stable, negative charge of a neuron when it is inactive.
short-term memory
info is lost within 2-3 minutes without rehearsal, stores 7-9 items
when a behavior is followed by an unpleasant outcome (-), the behavior may decrease in the future (-). Note this is risky business. To ensure effectiveness, it must be done, quickly, consistently and with proper intentions
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance of an extinguished CR after a time delay
A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
cerebral cortex
convoluted part of forebrain that is the center for higher order processes such as thinking, planning, judgment; receives and processes sensory information and directs movement
Waxy flexibility
one component in the behavior of catatonic schizophrenics where the body may be arranged to take any shape, even one that is probaly very uncomfortable
Sensory Cortex
area of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
A diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience. Include LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. Produce euphoria, increased sensory awareness, and a distorted sense of time. They impair judgment.
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
direct observation
observers are trained to watch and record behavior as objectively as possible
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 043)
Spinal Cord
The column of nerves that transmits information between the brain and the peripheral nervous system.
Near Death Experience
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death such as cardiac arrest often similiar to drug induced hallucinations
Social Learning Theory
children learn gender roles by observing gender-linked behavior and are rewarded or punished
bystander effect
the tendency to not offer help when needed if others are present who do not offer help
measure of central tendency
a descriptive statistic that tells which result or score best represents an entire set of scores
social desirability bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
Abnormal Behavior
Behavior that is beyond the bounds of social acceptability
Refers to the way an issue or question is posed. It can affect people's perception of the issue or answer to the question.
stimulus generalization
the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the conditioned stimulus
Extinction example
Girl stops calling out in class when teacher fails to acknowledge her
A person who does not cheat on her income tax because she might get caught and sent to jail is demonstrating Kohlberg's ________ stage of morality.
Behavior Genetics
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males or for females.
multiaxial assessment/DSM IV
a diagnostic manual that attempts to classify signs and symptoms into syndromes- signs are observable phenomena (temperature) and symptoms are reports from patients (headache)
encoding failure
when a memory was never formed in the first place
Serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 335)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
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