AP Psychology 150 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bacteriophobia
fear of bacteria
Albert Ellis
1913-2007; Field: cognitive-behavioral; Contributions: Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions
Delta (<4 cps)
deep sleep
neuropsychologist
concerned with the relationship between brain/nervous system and behavior
Aaron Beck
1921-present; Field: cognitive; Contributions: father of Cognitive Therapy, created Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories
Mnemonics
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
amplitude
loudness, height of sound waves
conditioning
generally, learning in which certain experiences make certain behaviors more or less likely; there are two forms of this
Tolerance
The characteristic of requiring higher and higher doses of a drug to produce the same effect.
Francis Galton
differential psychology AKA "London School" of Experimental Psychology; Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance; compared identical & fraternal twins, hereditary differences in intellectual ability
basic research
scientific investigations intended to expand the knowledge base
extinction
when behavior has no meaningful consequence (0), the behavior will decrease in the future
Jean Piaget
Developmental psychology. Stage Theory of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations).
Algorithm
A methodical, logical procedure that, while sometimes slow, guarantees success.
sublimation
in psychoanalysis, the channeling of repressed sexual and aggressive urges into socially acceptable substitue outlets
Premack principle
commonly occurring behavior can reinforce a less frequent behavior
shaping positively reinforcing closer and closer approximation of a desired behavior to teach a new behavior
Implicit Memory
Memory accessed without conscious effort
hypothalamus
limbic system component that regulates hunger, body temperature and other functions
Harry Harlow
Monkey mother experiment on attatchment
Raymond Cattell
perspective; personality 16 PF test
EEG
electro encephalograph is a device that monitors the electrical activity in the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attatched to the surface of tehs calp. Sums and amplifies electric potential occurring in many thousands of brain cells. EEG can be used to identify patterns of brain activity that occur when participants engage in specific behaviors or experience specific emotions
Extrinsic Motivation
involves engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards
night terrors
also called sleep terror disorder, these include the characteristic of waking abruptly in a state of panic, usually in children, less often in adults
Concept
Mental category used to classify an event or object according to some distinguishing property or feature.
Object permanence
The realization of infants that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight
hallucinogen
a substance capable of producing a sensory effect in the absence of real external sensory stimuli
iconic memory
brief nearly perfect visual memory, last 2 tenths of second
memory decay
when memory traces become weaker; fading or weakening of memories
Habituation
Learning not to respond to the repeated presentation of a stimulus
Standard Deviation
A measure of variability that indicates the average differences between the scores and their mean.
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Ivan Pavlov
Russian Psychologist that showed that there existed a basic pattern in the reflex regulation of the activity of the circulatory organs. His greatest interest is in Physiology.
identity crisis
an adolescent's struggle to establish a personal identity, or self-concept
Cochlea
The coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube of the inner ear through which sound waves trigger neural impulses.
Source amnesia
information recieved from a person that leads to the false memory
framing
the tendency for decisions to be influence by how potential outcomes are phrased.
group polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
synaptic cleft
microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
Delusions
False beliefs that are maintained even though they are clearly out of touch with reality.
Lateralization
The specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions.
Psychoactive Drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Phonemes
The smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually. There are about 100 phonemes, and each language uses 20<>80.
kinethesis
sense of balance and of one's physical position
identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
informed consent
the agreement of participants to take part in an experiment and their acknowledgement that they understand the nature of their participation in the research, and have been fully informed about the general nature of the research, its goals, and methods
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
double-blind procedure
A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
Misinformation effect
The distortion of memory by suggestion or misinformation
Somatofoam Disorders
Problems in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints
Down Syndrome
Usually the result of an extra chromosome in the person's genetic makeup. It is a common cause of severe retardation and associated physical disorders.
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
formal operational stage
Piaget's fourth stage of cognitive development when adolescents become capable of logic and abstract thought
Neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Example: The neurons are the reason for our ability to think.
Intelligence Quotient
defined originally as ration of mental age to chronological age x100
sensoeimotor stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly interms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Narcissistic
the extreme focus on oneself, that is persistent and it causes cause significant distress and functional impairment.
genes
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission
nearsightedness
a condition also known as myopia in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 206)
interference theory
the belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of memories with each other
one in which participants are exposed to the independent variable being studied
Experimental condition
Intermittent (partial) Reinforcement
responses are sometimes reinforced and other times they are not
learning occurs slower but leads to greater persistence (resistance to extinction)
child throws a tantrum-should a parent "give in"?
integrity vs despair
Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives
Afferent nerve fibers
Axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body.
Procedural Memory
A recognition and awareness of how to perform particular tasks, skills, or procedures-"knowing how" skills, such as how to ride a bicycle.
Family Therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 697)
Peripheral Route Persuasion
Attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speakers attractiveness.
Molecular Genetics
A subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of specific genes.
Psychopharmacology
study of effects of drugs on mind and behavior
Identity vs. role confusion
adolescence (teen years into 20's), teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.
Cognitive Psychologists
study mental activites such as the way we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgements
Psychologists and psychiatrists
These two groups of people label behavior as disordered when it is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
Conduction Hearing Loss
damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
eardrum being punctured, damage to bones of the middle ear
Manifest Content
The story line of a dream taken at face value without interpretation
recall task
a memory task, such as an essay test, requiring retrieval of stored information with minimal cues available
massed vs. spaced practice effect
the tendency for retention of learned material to be greater with spaced practice than with massed practice
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