AP Psychology 31 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
telepathy
mind-to-mind communication
Case study method
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Schizophrenia
Paranoid schizophrenia: catatonic schizophrenia
Amygdala
influences fear and aggression
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiative in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
Harry Stack Sullivan
interpersonal psychoanalysis; groundwork for enmeshed relationships, developed the Self-System, a configuration of personality traits
Introspection
Careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience.
Tomography
Imaging by sections or sectioning
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
hindsight
recognition of the realities, possibilities, or requirements of a situation, event, decision etc., after its occurrence.
hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Retroactive inhibition
difficulty in recalling learned information because of something learned after the information one is trying to recall
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
Ghrelin
hormone manufactured primarily by the stomach that stimulates appetite and the secretion of growth hormone by the pituitary gland
Plasticity
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
Wolfgang Kohler
insight: sudden mental reorganization of a problem that makes solution obvious
denial
a defense mechanism in which unpleasant thought or desires are ignored or excluded from consciousness
midbrain
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
Aggression
_______________ is physical or verbal behavior intend­ed to hurt someone, (p. 88)
Egocentrism
Thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person's viewpoint
Fear
an emotion experienced in anticipation of some specific pain or danger (usually accompanied by a desire to flee or fight)
perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information
visceral
pain fibers located in internal organs
mutation
spontaneous, heritable change in a piece of DNA that occurs in an individual organism
Rods
Photoreceptors that are sensitive only to the intensity of light.
Judith Rich Harris
peer groups teach kids
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and the dividing by the number of scores
Francis Galton
early English scientist. His contributions include such things as helping develop the first personality tests, developing the science of eugenics (better humans through breeding), using statistics in research, arguing that nature is more important in personality than nurture. He is most well known for his belief in eugenics
Concept
Mental category used to classify an event or object according to some distinguishing property or feature.
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
REM-Sleep
a recurring sleep state during which vivid dreams commonly occur
Repression
is an example of motivated forgetting in that painful and unacceptable memories are prevented from entering consciousness. In psychonalytic theory, it is the basic defense mechanism
Absolute Threshold
The hypothetical minimum amount of physical energy of a given kind that an individual can detect. - Level at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time.
Pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Set point
Inborn "weight thermostat;" the weight your body prefers to be at
Transactional Analysis
have clear lines of communication; parent, adult and child taken from Freud's understanding of personality
syntax
the grammatical rules of a language
ex. makes sense no follows not syntax English appropriate
Antagonist
a drug that neutralizes or counteracts the effects of another drug
Cochlea
contains the receptor cells of the ear
Morphemes
The smallest units of meaning in language. Includes root words, suffixes, and prefixes.
consolidation
the process of changing a short-term memory to a long-term one
reinforcer
in operant conditioning, an event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Opponent-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision.
homeostasis
the body's tendencey to maintain a biologically balanced condition, especially with regard to nutrients, water, and temperature
Population
Includes anyone or anything that could possibly be selected to be in the sample.
object permanence
recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age
Dopamine
too much = Schizophrenia
too little= Parkinsons
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
Discrimination
the ability to distinguish between the CS and other irrelevant stimuli
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
Just noticeable difference
experience of the difference threshold
Sensory neurons
Neurons that transmit information from sensory organs, muscles, and inner organs to the spinal cord and brain.
farsightedness
a condition which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.
polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion, such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes
triarchic theory of intelligence
Robert Sternberg's theory that describes intelligence as having analytic, creative and practical dimensions
Fluid Intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
William Wundt
The Creator of the school of Psychology of Structualism
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
overconfidence
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
Language Acquisition Device
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neural stimulus
somatoform disorder
any of a group of psychological disturbances characterized by physical symptoms for which there is not a medical cause
Homozygous condition
The situation that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are the same.
Rorschach test
a projective test that uses inkblots as the ambiguous stimulus
James-Lange theory of emotion
conscious experience of emnotion results from one's awareness of physiological arousal
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment
Wernicke's area
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
Dependent Variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
Unconditional Positive Regard
The nonjudgmental empathy and respect for another person.
negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
Cognitive Perspective
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
Positive correlations
two variables in same direction, high or low scores on x are associated with high or low scores on y
Myelin sheath
A layer of protective insulation that covers the axons of certain neurons and helps speed transmission of nerve impulses.
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere.
Afferent Neurons vs Efferent Neurons
Afferent neurons-neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain and spinal cordEfferent Neurons- neurons conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord
sensory neuron
a nerve cell that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous system.
Achievement Test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms, extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Activation Synthesis Theory
during REM sleep, the brain stem stimulates the forebrain with random neural impulses which the brain tries to order to make a story, or a dream
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
Developmental Psychology
a branch of psychology that seeks to understand, describe, and explore how behavior and mental processes change over the course of a lifetime
Somatic nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits informaton between the central nervous system and the sensory organs and muscles; also controls voluntary movements.
anterograde amnesia
a loss of memory of events occurring after the injury; problems with the formation of new memories
glial cell
this acts as a support system for neurons
Reticular fomation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an imp. role in controlling arousal
drive-reduction theory
behaviors are motivated by a desire to reduce such as hunger
Short-term memory (STM)
The memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.
Ambiguous Figures
Images that are capable of more than one interpretation. There is no 'right' way to see an ambiguous figure.
Echoic memory
kind of split second memory you have after initially hearing a sound. It's the lingering of a sound on your eardrum after the sound has occurred. If the sound isn't sent into long term memory, it will fade in a few seconds.
central nervous system
the part of the nervous sytem that consisits of the brain and spinal cord
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
constructivist approach to perception
the perceptual system must often make a reality out of bits of sensory information
Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences
IQ tests emphasize verbal and math skills.  He claimed there are 8 separate types of intelligence:
logic/math, language, music, spatial, body/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities
a model of intelligence based on factor analysis that contains three hierarchical levels of ability, from specific skills to a general intellectual (g) factor
d Eye Movement (Rem) Sleep
A stage of sleep in which brain activity and other functions resemble the waking state but that is accompanied by rapid eye movements and virtual muscle paralysis.
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