AP Psychology 42 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
social exclusion
sharp, bright, fast
correlation coefficient
-1.00 - +1.00
Visual capture
conflict among senses
Francis Galton
1822-1911; Field: differential psychology; Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance; human traits are inherited Studies: & "Law of Errors"-differences in intellectual ability
Anagesics (Pain Killers)
Serotonin and Endorphins
Also called an electrocardiogram.
A test measuring the electrical impulses corresponding to a heartbeat.
_________ are people's characteristic patterns of behavior, (p. 435)
Defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for ones actions.
Harry Harlow
Developmental Psychology (experimented with infant monkeys and attatchment)
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the response elicited by the conditioned stimulus
individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Primary reinforcer
Stimulus that are inherently reinforcing because they staisfy biological needs
a disorder characterized by an unreasonable fear that one has a serious disease
placebo effect
expirimental results caused by expectations alone. any effect on behavior caused by the administrator
_______ are memory aids (acronyms, peg-words, etc.), which often use vivid imagery and organizational devices, (p. 258)
the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response or operant behavior through nonreinforcement
B.F. Skinner
-theory on language development
-language development involves observation, association, imitation and reinforcement
term that describes motivations that drive behavior in order to gain rewards from outside forces
bushy, branching extensions of neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward cell body
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
Concrete Operations
children can mentally manipulate internal representations of objects.
Linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Hermann Ebbinghaus
German psychologist who pioneered experimental study of memory, and discovered the forgetting curve and the learning curve.
polygenic inheritance
process by which several genes interact to produce a certain trait; responsible for most important traits
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception - abrain area involved in language conprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
Correlational Research
research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
the pigmented, circular muscle in the eye that regulates the size of the pupil to adjust to changes in the level of illumination
Conditioned Taste Aversions
Aversions to particular tastes acquired through classical conditioning.
basic research
explores questions that are of itnerest to psychologists but are not intended to have immediate, real world applications
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.
instrumental learning
Another name for operant learning, this term was introduced earlier by Edward L. Thorndike
unconsciousness and parallel dimensions
processes information simultaneously on multiple tracks
different types of taste
sweet, salty, sour, bitter
corpus callosum
bundle of fibers connecting cerebral hemispheres
social-cognitive perspective
According to the _________, behavior is the result of interactions between peo­ple (and their thinking) and their social context. (p. 443)
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
Early school of psychology that used self-reflection (introspection) to examine the structural elements of the human mind.
Introduced by Titchener.
the process of getting information out of memory storage
Cerebrospinal Fluid
fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
resting potential
the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
located near the base of the neck
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extneds to other participants an circumstances
Representational Thought
thinking that involves mental images of tangible objects or other forms of representation.
active listening
empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies; a feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
Ecstasy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
eposodic memory
memory for specific events in time
The general state of being aware of and responsive to events in the environment, as well as one's own mental processes
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word of part of a word (such as a prefix)
Glial Cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance-the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
retinal disparity
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Bulimia Nervosa
binge eating followed by purging via vomiting or laxatives, fear of being fat
genes are not isolated units, but must be "triggered" into action by their interaction with the environmentgenes are not isolated units, but must be "triggered" into action by their interaction with the environment
double blind
this term describes an experiment in which neither the subjects nor the experimenter knows whether a subject is a member of the experimental group or the control group
Frequency Theory
hair cells vibrate at the same frequency as the sound heard; doesn't account for high frequencies
the process of modifying a schema to account for new information; the process of the eyes lens changing shape in order to focus on distant or near objects
Sleep apnea
A respiratory disorder in which the person intermittently stops breathing many times while asleep
transfer appropriate processing
occurs when initial processing of information is similar to the process of retrieval; the better the match, the better the recall
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
antisocial personality disorder
psychological disorder in which one demonstrates a lack of conscience
Attribution theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
A curved structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid.
the subjects do not know whether they are in the control group or experimental group
Basilar Membrane
valley where hair cells rest which amplify the sound vibrations.
chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitters
gender schema theory
(Sandra Bem)
-we develop clusters of physical qualities, behaviors and personality associated with either sex.
-based on sociocultural expectations and individual formation of schemas
-some people may be more likely to strictly adhere to expectations, while others may be more androgynous (state of being neither masculine nor feminine in appearance or behavior)
Monocular cues
clues about distance based on the image of one eye
Basic Trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
Conditioned response (CR)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS)
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system, individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed by family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication.
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
Conduction Deafness
loss of hearing that results when the eardrum is punctured or any of the ossicles lose their ability to vibrate -- hearing aids may restore hearing
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Rods and Cones
in the retina, receives images that have passed through the lens of the eye
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
Cognitive Maps
a mental representation of the lay out of one's enrichment
auditory canal
the area that sound waves pass through to reach the eardrum
Standard Deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Terminal buttons
Swellings at the tips of axons from which neurotransmitters are dispatched into the synapse.
Babbling stage
Beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
Proceedual memory
refers to the use of objects or movements of the body, such as how exactly to use a pencil or ride a bicycle. This type of memory is encoded and probably stored by the cerebellum and the striatum.
Experimental group or condition
group to determine what effect an independent variable may have - compared to control
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
group of abnormalities that occur in the babies of mothers who drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy
Garcia's findings about taste aversions
Conditioned taste aversion occurs when a subject associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance. Generally, taste aversion is caused after ingestion of the food causes nausea, sickness, or vomiting. The ability to develop a taste aversion is considered an adaptive trait or survival mechanism that trains the body to avoid poisonous substances before they can cause harm
systematic desensitization
(aka: a kind of counterconditioning)
a behavior therapy used to reduce clients' anxiety responses through counterconditioning
Freud - dream content
the motivation of all dream content is wish-fulfillment, and that the instigation of a dream is often to be found in the events of the day preceding the dream
5 Stages of Coping with Death and Dying
as researched by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, 1 denial, 2 anger, 3 bargaining, 4 depression, 5 acceptance
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