AP Psychology 76 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Temporal Lobe
Hearing
descriptive statistics
summarizes data
genotype
an individual's genetic make-up
Action potential
A neural impulse
Projection
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
Rods
photoreceptors that detect black, white, gray, and detect movement; peripheral vision; dim-light vision; throughout retina, none in fovea
cerebellum
brain structure that controls well-learned motor activities like riding a bike
Extrinsic/Intrinsic Motivation
includes external rewards/internal rewards.
Psychiatrist: attends medical school, receives an M.D., does a residency in psychiatry, and is only mental-health professional who can prescribe drugs
ostracized
excluded or shunned by others
Rehearsal
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
Linguistics
The study of language, including speech sounds, meaning, and grammar.
Lingustic Determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Midbrain
Between the forebrain and the hindbrain.
Attitude
A learned, stable and relatively enduring evaluation of a person, object, or idea, which can affect behavior.
Perceptual Constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
Borderline Personality
unstable identity, relationships, and emotions; the hardest to accurately diagnose.
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Anti-Anxiety Drugs
Relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness. Most popular drugs are Valium, Xanax, and other benzoiadizepine drugs (tranquilizers) [come with side effects].
William Sheldon
personality; theory that linked personality to physique on the grounds that both are governed by genetic endowment: endomorphic (large), mesomorphic (average), and ectomorphic (skinny)
systematic desensitization
behavioral approach to treating phobias where a client in taught to relax while imagining increasingly anxiety provoking situations involving the feared object or situation
basic research
scientific investigations intended to expand the knowledge base
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Family Therapy
Treatment involving family members which seeks to change the unhealthy familial patterns and interactions. Fixation In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, the failure to complete a stage successfully which results in a continuation of that stage into later adulthood.
Social Leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Reliability
how often is the test accurate?
Schemas
concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information
incentives
behavior that is goal directed; actions are directed toward attaining desirable stimuli and toward avoiding unwanted stimuli
Alpha Waves
Regular wave, "just chillin'" waves
interposition
monocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further away
Unconditioned Response
Unlearned or involuntary response to an unconditioned stimulus
Nature-Nurture Issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
*Limbic System*
The amygdala, hippocampus, and parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus make up the__________.
fMRI (functional MRI)
reveales bloodflow, therefor showing brain activity and brain functions
Monoamines
an amine compound containing one amino group, functioning as neurotransmitters -- epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
Polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes)
cornea
the transparent outer covering of the eye
comformity
adjusting ones behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
incentive
an external stimulus that tends to encourage behavior
dream
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
replication
the repetition of an experiment to test the validity of its conclusion
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
lens
a curved, transparent element of the vision system that provides focus
Lesion
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
Disassociation
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
random sample
sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
bottom-up processing
-analysis begins in the sense receptors and works its way up to the highest centers in the brain
Daydreaming
A form of consciousness during a waking state in which one's mind wanders to dreamy thoughts or fantasies.
According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional stabiltiy made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflcits that Germany would inevitably lost World War II. This claim best illustrates
the hindsight bias
The majority of psychologists are trained in this field.
Clinical Psychology
hypnosis memories
memories or suggestions from hypnotist can be either fact or fiction
Estrogen
A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
operant conditioning
a method of influencing behavior by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing undesired ones
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues
Reaction range
genetically determined limits on IQ or other traits., The genetically determined limits for an individual's intelligence.
sympathetic nervous system
division of autonomic nervous system; arouses body. mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
James-Lange Theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Zero Correlation
No relationship between scores on X and scores on Y; cannot predict scores on one from scores on the other
Zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
framing
the way the question is phrased which can alter the objective outcome of problem solving for decision making
cochlear implant
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions.
primary sex characteristics
The ______________ are the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that enable reproduction, (p. 116)
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports one's preconceptions
case studies
a type of research that involves making in-depth observations of individual persons
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby, injuring him
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
Educational psychologists
focus on how effective teaching and learning take place
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 351)
Afferent Neurons
Sensory Neurons that carry messages to the brain; vision, hearing, touch, smell, pain, and balance
Robert Rescorla's findings on conditioning
classical conditioning; second-order conditioning/higher-order conditioning
generalize
to extend from the particular to the general, to apply observations based on a sample to a population
MDMA or ecstasy
Synthetic club drug that combines stimulant and mild psychedelic effects
Edward Bradford Titchener
Student of Wilhelm Wundt; founder of Structuralist school of psychology.
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Primary Reinforcer
You're born knowing that it's good, as with food
classical conditioning
method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus
binocular cues
depth cues that are based on two eyes
Physiological Needs
These are the most basic needs, to include air, water, food, sex.
risky-shift phenomenon
a type of group polarization effect in which group discussion leads to the adoption of a riskier course of action than the members would have endorsed initially
Divergent thinking
a type of creative thinking in which one generates new solutions to problems
Hippocampus
Part of the limbic system that plays a role in long term memory and spatial navigation
Coefficient of Determination
Predictive power as the strength of the correlation increases our ability to predict x based on y
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
androgyny
Having a mix of both male and female gender characteristics
Extrinsic Motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation. assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation and level of fatigue.
dendrite
a branch off the cell body of a neuron that receives new information from other neurons
Predictive Validity
the extent to which a test predicts an outcome in the future.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Seyle's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages- alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
Internal Locus of Control
The belief that an individual has more control over life circumstances than the environment does.
Cooper's research on visual processing (using cats)
He reared kittens in darkness, except for 5 hrs each day during which they were placed in a horizontally or vertically striped environment. Kittens raised w/o exposure to horizontal lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal bars, and those raised w/o vertical lines had difficulty seeing vertical bars. He found that whether such visual cells responded mostly to horizontal or vertical lines depended on the kittens early visual exp.
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