AP Psychology 77 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Zygote
Germinal Stage
threshold
intensity of stimulus
instinct
inherited, automatic species-specific behaviors
Genotype
An organism’s genetic makeup.
addiction
compulsive drug craving and use
Recognition
identification of something as familiar such as multiple choice and matching on a test
humanist
perspective in psychology that stresses the goodness of people and their possibility of reaching their fullest potential
outgroup
"Them"--those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup
altruism
Selflessness, unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Habituation
Becoming accustomed to constant exposure to a stimulus
haptic memory
sensory memory for touch
Psychoneuroimmunology
An interdisciplinary area of study that includes behavioral, neurological, and immune factors and their relationship to the development of disease
Biomedical Therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
Sensory Neurons
Receive information from the environment.
serotonin
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Projective Test
Measures unconscious aspects of personality; assumes subject will project important unconscious material
Reflex
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Interpretation
The therapist's attempts to explain the inner significance of the client's thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviors.
Jean Piaget
cognitive psychology; created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection; nondeclarative memory.
psychophysiological illness
literally "mind-body" illness, any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension, and some headaches. Note: this is distinct from hypochondria = misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
data
Facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations.
Gestalt
German word typically translated as meaning 'whole' or 'form.'
gender
in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
apparent motion/phi phenomenon/stroboscopic movement
(motion perception)
-illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off is succession
Perception
the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensations, enabling you to recognize meaningful objects and events
hippocampus
limbic system component that process memory.
Wundt
considered the founder of scientific psychology- worked on the time it took to process info-foundations for cognitive psychology
all-or-nothing
description of the action of neurons when firing
Size constancy
Ability of the visual perceptual system to recognize that an object remains constant in size regardless of its distance from the observer or the size of its image on the retina.
Double-Blind Procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have recieved an actual treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluation studies
Mode
The most frequently occuring score in a distribution.
Amygdala
One compnent of the limbic system; particularly involved in the experiences of fear, aggression
psychiatry
the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
Mood Congruent Memory
remembering information of similar moods, recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
predictive bias
occurs when an intelligence test successfully predicts criterion measures, such as school or job performance, for some froups but not for others
role-play
technique in therapy and training in which participants act out new behaviors or skills
anxiety
distress or uneasiness of mind caused by fear of danger
action potential
the electrical process by which information is transmitted the length of an axon
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another person that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, and behaviors will spontaneously occur
Self
In Roger's theory of personality, the perception an individual has of himself or herself and of his or her relationships to other people and to various aspects of life.
Psychosurgery
_________ is a biomedical therapy that attempts to change behavior by removing or destroying brain tissue. Since drug therapy became widely available in the 1950s, psycho-surgery has been infrequently used. (p. 523)
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve.
omission training
a procedure in which reinforcement occurs when a specific behavior does not occur in a fixed period of time
Genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
limbic system
a doughnut-shaped stem of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Psychoactive Drugs
A chemical substance that alters perception and mood.
Central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
Martha McClintlock
-Study at Wellesley College involving menstrual synchrony
Subliminal perception
Perception of stimuli that are presented below the threshold of conscious awareness.
The mere exposure effect most directly contributes to the positive relationship between _____ and liking.
proximity
Someone trained in Psychology who treats people with psychological disorders.
Clinical Psychologist
Hindsight Bias
i knew it all along phenomenon
Ellis, Albert
A cognitive psychologist who the concept of Rational-Emotive Therapy
retroactive interference
when new learning disrupts the recall of previously-learned information
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones
mean
an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n
State-dependent memory
information is more likely to be recalled if the attempt to retrieve it occurs in a situation similar to the situation in which it was encoded
occipital lobes
portion of cerebral cortex, lying at back of head; includes visual areas, recieve visual info from opposite visual field
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
Reaction Formation
Cover up threatening material with the opposite; hate someone but believe you love him/her
transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. in sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses.
functional fixedness
inability to see how uses (functions) for familiar objects or for things that were used in a particular way
Sensory Interaction
the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste
perceptual set
a mental prediposition to perceive one thing and not another
Roger Sperry
started research on split brains; made it possible for epilepsy patients to live a normal life after surgery
formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the ______________ normally begins about age 12. during this stage people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.(p.108) Memory aid:To help differentiate Piaget's stages remember that "operations" are mental transforms. Preoperational children who lack the ability to perform transformations are "before this development milestone. Concrete operational children can operate on real,or concrete". objects Formal operational children can perform logical transformations on abstract concepts
teratogen
a noxious substance, such as a virus or drug, that can cause prenatal defects
scapegoat theory
this theory says that having suffered negative experience, an individual might blame an innocent person or group for the experience and subsequently mistreat the person or group
behavioral neuroscience
a subfield that studies the links among the brain, nervous system, and behavior
positive psychology
field of study which concentrates on good psychological traits such as contentment and joy; it also studies character traits such as wisdom, integrity and altruism
neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Criterion
a rule, test; a standard for judgment or evaluation
selective attention
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 237)
Social inhibition
Occurs when the presence of others makes performance worse
After Terry lost a finger in an industrial accident, the area of his sensory cortex devoted to receiving input from that finger gradually became very responsive to sensory input from his adjacent fingers. This best illustrates
plasticity
groupthink
a process in which members of a cohsive (close-knit) group emphasize agreement at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision
reinforcement
a stimulus that follows a response and increases the frequency of response
Sleep Spindles
Short bursts of brain activity that characterize stage 2 NREM sleep
Visual cortex
The most important area of the brain's occipital lobe, which receives and further processes information from the lateral geniculate nucleus; also known as the striate cortex.
Standard Deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors--one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue--which when stimulated in combination can produce the percetion of any color
Rosenhan Study Findings
Healthy people who pretend to hear voices when admitted were kept in a mental hospital for 19 days even though they behaved normally thereafter; shows that while diagnostic labels help us communicate and classify disorders, they may lead to biased judgments
Mary Calkins
learnt from James but was denied Ph.D from Harvard and offered sister school Radcliffe's despite best test scores. First female president of APA (American Psychological Association)
rationalization
"The only reason I flunked the test is because our teacher is no good."
frequency distribution
a chart or array of scores, usually arranged from highest to lowest, showing the number of instances for each score
Objectification Theory
Illnesses are caused by a culture that sexually objectifies the female body which fundamentally alters self views and well being.
self-serving bias
the tendency to take credit for our accomplishments and to explain away our failures or disappointments
Freud-dream content
the motivation of all dream content is wish fulfillment and the instigation of a dream is often to be found in the events of the day preceding the dream
Frontal Lobes
Located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere that assist with planning, coordinating, and controlling behavior
Linear Perspective
parallel lines that run away from the viewer seem to get closer together
rooting reflex
touch a baby's cheek, the baby turns towards the touch, assuming they will find the nipple
control group
The group in an experiment in which all variables are kept constant. It is necessary to figure out whether or not a certain variable affected an experiment and to what extent
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
Mental Set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
short-term memory
type of memory that holds a few items briefly before they are lost
Gestalt Theory
-"the whole is bigger than the sum of its parts."
-visual perception tends to be based on big picture
Experimenter bias
Errors in a research study due to the predisposed notions or beliefs of the experimenter
biased sample
a sample in which one or more parts of the population are favored over others.
Erikson's Social Development stagesTrust vs Mistrust
we will learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. If we fail to experience trust and are constantly frustrated because our needs are not met, we may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general.
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