AP Psychology : Memory Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The loss of memory.
The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
formation of new emotional memories
retroactive interference
new material interferes with remembering old information already in LTM; everyday occurrence; example learning list of word pairs. A second list uses one of the same words, you want to use the first pair, not the new second pair
Working memory
Involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory adn visual-spatial information, and of information retreived from long-term memory.
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Implicit Memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. Also called procedural memory
Long-Term Memory
Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
eidetic imagery (memory)
true "photographic" memory; phenomenon where a person can recite a poem they read only ones or re-create an image in minute detail
The persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
When a person "remembers" info that was never stored in the memory
When Jake applied for a driver's license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to remember his address. Jake's memory difficulty most likely resulted from a failure of what?
The processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning.
memories can be altered after each retrieval
Elaborative Rehearsal
Involves thinking about how new material relates to information already stored in memory. Effective for long-term remembering.
Effortful Processing
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Spacing Effect
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved throught massed study or practice.
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory for events immediately before a trauma.
semantic encoding
Ebbinghaus observed that it is much easier to learn meaningful material than to learn nonsense material. This best illustrates the advantage of:
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic Memory
Momentary auditory memory lasting 3 or 4 seconds.
Episodic Memory
Memory of a specific event that happened while the subject was present. Ex: Like a TV episode.
Sensory Memory
The immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
is a neural region within the limbic system that is important in the processing of explicit memories for storage.
flashbulb memory
vivid memory of a certain event and the incident surrounding the event; example: 9/11, first kiss, wedding day, funeral
For a fraction of a second after the lightning flash disappeared, Ileana retained a vivd mental image of its ragged edges. Her experience most clearly illustrates the nature of what memory?
Removal of/damaging the hippocampus results in...?
Loss of short-term memory ability.
Information Processing Model
Suggests that in order for information to become firmly embedded in memory, it must pass through three stages of mental processing: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory.
Interference theory
Other learning gets in the way of retrieval of information already in long term memory
Deja vu
is the false sense that you have already experienced a current situation.
memory construction
When we fall in love, we tend to overestimate how much we liked our partner when we first began dating. This best illustrates the dynamics of:
Functional Fixedness
A tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions (no change).
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon (TOT)
in knowing a word, but not able to recall the word; occurs more often with stress or age
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