AP Psychology : Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Monocular Cues
left hemisphere
language, logic
the first menstrual period
Kubler Ross
Stages of Dying
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
Parenting Styles
Authoritarian - strict rules
Authoritative - rule with explanation and talking
Permissive - no guidelines
Uninvolved - few demands, indifferent
in language, smallest distinctive sound unit
a predetermined, stereotyped sequence of actions that defines a well known situation.
Observable, quantifiable behavior, and the relationships between behavior and environment variables
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
Superstitious Behavior
Behavior learned through coincidental association with reinforcement
Visual Encoding
the encoding of picture images
Association Areas
Process sensory information more elaborately than do the primary sensory areas of the brain.
a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency
Measuring memory by determining how much time it takes to regain knowledge you learned previously
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
personal control
the power of the individual
Having both stereotypically male and stereotypically female characteristics
patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are maladaptive, disruptive, or uncomfortable for those who are affected or for those with whom they come in contact
top-down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental process, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations
Knoblike elevations on the tongue, containing the taste buds.
In Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby we transfer or project our feelings about one person onto another.
Sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
proximal stimulus
-physical stimulation of sense receptors
-can also refer to neural activity that results from sensory transduction
cognitive-behavioral therapy
popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system.
Reaction Formation
Preventing dangerous impulses from being expressed in behavior by exaggerating opposite behavior
reciprocal determinism
Bandura's idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment
vestibular sense
body sense of equilibrium and balance
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstacy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Inferential statistics
the branch of statistics concerned with the confidence with which conclusion drawn about samples may be extended to the populations from which they where drawn.
Split-brain patients
Individuals for whom the corpus callosum has been severed due to brain illness
random assignment
assigning subjects to experimental and control conditions
Nerve Deafness
(sensorineural) -- loss of hearing that results from damage to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory neurons; cochlear implants may restore some hearing
The Big 5 Factos, OCEAN
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism - Emotional Stability
omission training
a procedure in which reinforcement occurs when a specific behavior does not occur in a fixed period of time
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
term describes a personality test in which ambiguous stimuli trigger revelation of inner feelings, thoughts
in psychopharmacology, this is used to control bipolar symptoms.
Problem Solving
The behavior of individuals when confronted with a situation or task that requires insight or determination of some unknown elements.
Proactive interference
_______is the disruptive effect of something you already have learned on your efforts to learn or recall new information, (p. 275)
developed by Wundt and Titchener; this school of thought emphasizes the most basic components of mental processes
condition of having excess body fat resulting in being greatly overweight
state of awareness of ourselves and our environment
Social Psychologist
focuses on how the individual's behavior and mental processes are affected by interactions with other people
subconscious level
information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior
case study
observation technique in which one person is studied in depth for a long period of time
Extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
Those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup "Them"
Weber's law
the principle that the difference threshold is not a constant amount but some constant proportion of the stimulus
Sensation is to____ as perception is to_____
group of statistics used to determine if a significant difference exists between the means of two sets of data
condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
industrial/organizational psychology
Which subfield is most directly concerned with studying human behavior in the workplace?
a. clinical psychology
b. personality psychology
c. industrial/organizational psychology
d. psychiatry
a prediction of how the an experiment will turn out
split brain
condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
language acquisition device
facilitates the acquistion of language in children
Dorothy is so alarmed by spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to enter the basement of her own house alone. Dorothy appears to suffer from a(n):
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Dimensions of Taste (Gustation)
Sweet, sour, bitter, and umami
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions
transformational grammar
a theory of how grammatical knowledge represented and processes in the brain
Young Helmholtz
other name for the Trichromatic Theory - All colors are created from a combo of red, blue, and green
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
carries info away form the cell body; long, hair like extension off cell body
Short-term memory
_______ is activated memory, which can hold about seven items for a short time. (p. 254)
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both male and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
object permanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
functional fixedness
the tendency to think about things only in terms of their usual uses; can be a hindrance to creative thinking
Temporal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
The sound "sh" that begins the word "short" is an example of one of the _______ used in the English language.
Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain. This best illustrates the importance of
top-down processing
apparent motion
perceive something is moving when it isn't (like the phi phenomenon)
The ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable
sensory and motor neurons
carry incoming and outgoing information respectively
correlation coefficient
a number that expresses the degree and direction of the relationship between 2 variables, ranging from -1 to +1
Stanley Milgram
made studys on human obedience in Yale in the early 1960's.
unilateral neglect
a disorder, caused by damage to the parietal lobe, in which the individual acts as though the side of her or his world opposite to the damaged lobe does not exist
Identity/Role Confusion (Identity Crisis)
Crisis of 5th (adolescence) stage: will adolescent know where his/her life is headed
belief perserverance
when a person sees the evidence that supports their particular position, despite evidence presented to the contrary
autonomic nervous system
a division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions; made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.
parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
What are Perspectives?
A way to explain or study behaviors
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
Perception is Subjective
subjective experiences is a reason why people perceive the same stimulus differently
selective attention
focusing on only part of a stimulus field
Myelin Sheath
Fatty covering of Axon that speeds up the signal.
Physical Dependence
when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness
generalized anxiety disorder
anxiety disorder in which a person in continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue - STRUCTURE
REM Rebound
A phenomenon in which a person who is deprived of REM sleep greatly increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep at the first opportunity to sleep uninterupted
PET (positron emission tomography)
Used to see the results of a radioactive isotope tracer
Han's Selye's general adaption syndrome
(can I sell ye some gas?) is an attempt to explain reactions to stress. Includes prolonged stress, happening over and over
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