AP Psychology and Flashcards

Terms Definitions
G. E.Vaillant
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z scores
standard scores
Olfaction
the sense of smell
hypothalamus
sex drive,thirst, and hunger
Norms
The scores and corresponding percentile ranks of a large and representative sample of individuals from the population for which a test was designed
secondary sex characteristics
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
affective disorders
psychological disturbances of mood
hindbrain
division which includes the cerebellum, Pons, and medulla; responsible for involuntary processes: blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, breathing, sleep cycles
DSM-IV
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
structuralism (psychological persective)
*subjective
*objective
to study conscious experience and its structure
*Wilhelm Wundt and edward Titchener
Carol Gilligan
1936-pres; Field: cognition; Contributions: maintained that Köhlberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of boys and girls; girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles
Night terrors
arousal in 4th stage
psychoactive drug
chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Compulsion
An irrational and unwanted repetition of an activity which arises when one can no longer control an anxiety or attempts to satisfy an obsession.
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug: also known as acid.
Embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
Behaviorism
_____________ is the view that psychology should 1 focus only on the scientific study of observable behaviors without reference to mental phenome­na, (p. 4)
wilhelm wundt
created structuralism, created the first lab of psychology
experiment
form of scientific investigation in which one variable is tested to determine its effect on another
common fate
gestalt principle of perception stating that objects moving together at the same rate are perceived as a group
Frontal lobe
Responsible for higher-level thinking and reasoning. Contains primary cortex
Retroactive interference
Learning new information interferes with the recall of older information.
Loudness
A sensory characteristic of sound produced by the amplitude (intensity) of the sound wave.
Cognitive Perspective
psychological viewpoint that the focuses on the how people (and other animals) process, store, and retrieve information and how this information is used to reason and solve problems. Obviously, the part about reasoning is generally reserved for humans, although there is some argument concerning the possibility that other animals also reason and engage in problem-solving behaviors
Intelligence
The overall capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream
algorithm
step by step procedure that guarantees a solution
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called:
projection.
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
Control Group
Necessary when evaluating effects of psychotherapy to control for effects of extraneous variables
Cognitive Relaxation
meditation can produce a peaceful, mind-clearing state.
semantics
study of word meanings
-the meaning of what is said; words/symbols mean something and that meaning is important; for example, "run" and "wagon" have many different meanings in English
Outgroup
composed of members not in the ingroup.
Deductive reasoning
the drawing of logical conclusions from general statements: "All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal"
Changing Representation
Problems can be represented multiple ways (i.e. verbally, mathematically, spatially, etc...) and certain ways are better for solving certain problems.
Preconscious
Freud's level of the mind that contains those experiences that are not currently conscious but may become so with varying degrees of difficulty.
Thalamus
A structure in the forebrain that serves as relay station for sensory information and that plays a key role in regulating states of wakefulness and sleep.
Absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
display rules
the permissible ways of displaying emotions in a particular society
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 205)
fovea
the central focus area of the retina
Storage techniques (encoding)
-rehearsal: (memorization vs spacing effect) (serial position effect-primacy and recency effect) (chunking) (elaborate rehearsal-the connecting of new inofrmation in STM to something in LTM) (hierarchies) (concept maps) (mnemonics)
Early-Selection
Suggests that the filter of attention is placed after sensory detection and before recognition of meaning.
hue
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
object permanence
-realization that an object exists even if you cant see it.
Accommodation
process of changing the curvature of the lens to focus light rays on the retina
Belief Perseverance
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
flat effect
some schizophrenic victims lapse intoa zombie-like state of apparent apathy.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
Chunking
Taking lists or numbers in smaller chunks to make them easier to remember, like a phone number or you SS#
Halo effect
The tendency for one characteristic of an individual to influence a tester's evaluation of other characteristics
Mirror Neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
Organizational Psychologist
Study the behavior of people in organizations such as business firms.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Measures atoms as they realign
optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
Epinephrine
(adrenaline) -- gives us a burst of energy, prepares us for flight or fight,
vestibular sense
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
sleep spindles
short bursts of brain waves detected in stage 2 sleep
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
diffusion of responsibility
reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect
Confounding Variable
any factor that affects the dependent variable along with or instead of the independent variable
cognitive psychology
perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking
Endocrine System
The body's system of glands that release their secretions, called hormones, directly into the bloodstream.
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
Case Study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Psychoanalytic theory
A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
Objective Techniques
A generic term for the psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on measurable or objective techniques such as the MMPI-2 and WAIS-III.
Zollner
A bunch of parallel lines with short diagonal lines cutting through. Lines don't ook parallel but they are.
Nearsighted Vision
too much curvature of cornea, lens focus on image in front of retina, nearby objects are seen more clearly
Retinal Disparity
objects are slightly different on each retina and the differences change with distance
Electrical recording
As a method of investigating brain functioning, a process of recording the electrical changes that occur in a specific neuron or groups of neurons in the brain in relation to particular activities or behaviors.
introspection
looking inside oneself as a way to study psych-titchner was a fan of this method
sensory
of or pertaining to the senses or sensation.
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Instrumental Aggression
having a purpose or a goal for aggression, behavior = satisfaction
Central Route to Persuasion
occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling.
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Wavelength
the distance from one peak to the next in a waveform
dysthymic disorder
a mood disorder involving a pattern of comparatively mild depression that lasts for at least two years
need for achievement
in Murray and McClelland's theory, a mental state that produces a psychological motive to excell or to reach some goal
optic chiasm
the point in the brain where the visual field information from each eye "crosses over" to the appropriate side of the brain for processing
Anatomy of Amnesia
Damage in the hippocampal region is what causes amnesia and impaired LTM.
aerial perspective
objects that are hazy seems more far away
Grammar
A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages.
Gestalt Psychology
From a German word that means 'whole' or 'form' or 'configuration' (A Gestalt is also a percept). The Gestalt psychologists believed that much of perception is shaped by innate factors built into the brain.
Dissociative disorders
disorders in which we lose some aspect of ourselves. There are three major dissociative disorders: Dissociative Identity Disorder (multiple personality), fugue states, and amnesia.
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
Humanistic Approach
people choose how to behave d on their perceptions of the world in order to grow toward their unique potential
Positive Skew
The right tail is longer; the mass of the distribution is concentrated on the left of the figure; It has relatively few high values; the distribution is said to be right-skewed
cognative dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discontent we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent
water balance (role of hypothalamus)
The body also has two triangular adrenal (pronounced: uh-dree-nul) glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function. The outer part, the adrenal cortex, produces hormones called corticosteroids (pronounced: kor-tih-ko-ster-oydz) that i nfluence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function. The inner part, the adrenal medulla (pronounced: muh-duh-luh), produces catecholamines (pronounced: kah-tuh-ko-luh-meenz), such as epinephrine (pronounced: eh-puh-neh-frun). Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress.
William James
functionalism
Sociocultural
environment, social norm
schizophrenia
disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions
Extinction
conditioned response continually decreases until it no longer exists.
operational definition
defining the research variables
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example physical and economis indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
Encoding
Gathering information into our brain
evolutionary
the perspective of psychological science that deals with how nature selects traits that promote the perpetuation of one's genes
Standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group
Broca's Area
left hemisphere, temporal lobe
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
debriefing
a procedure to inform participants about the true nature of an experiment after its completion
Task Leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
Random Assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-exisitng differences between those assigned to different groups
Cochlea
The coiled and channeled main structure of the inner ear.
Visual Encoding
the encoding of picture images
Hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Ransom Assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
Axis II
includes personality disorders, such as avoidant and dependent personalities, and mental retardation
midbrain
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
frequency
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)
insanity
a legal term describing one's inability to be responsible for one's action due to the condition of the mind
hallucinogens
cause changes in perceptions of reality
Learning
The modification through experience of pre-existing behavior and understanding.
stanley schachter
two factor theory of emotion
Evolutionary Approach
Theoretical perspective that examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for a species over the course of many generationsioral processes in terms
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
agresssion
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
information processing
humans accomplish this either in parallel (unconsciously) or in serial fashion (consciously)
Oral Stage
Freud's first stage of personality development, from birth to about age 2, during which the instincts of infants are focused on the mouth as the primary pleasure center.
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
a popular integrated theapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
Test-retest reliability
reliability estimated by giving the seame test on two occasions and finding the correlation between the scores for the two administrations
Lesion
Dead part of brain tissue either naturally of by force for study
nearsightedness
a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina
Gate-Control Theory
theory that spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pains signals or allows them to pass. gate is opened by activity of pain going up small nerve fibers & gate is closed by act of large fibers or by info coming from brain
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events
self-actualization
the highest of Malow's needs; "the full use of talent"
imprinting
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
IQ Tests
a test designed to measure intelligence on an objective, standardized scale
Preoperational stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development (lasting from about age 2 to age 6 or 7), during which the child begins to represent the world symbolically
Parapsychology
____________ is the study of ESP, psychokine­sis, and other paranormal forms of interaction between the individual and the environment, (p. 176)
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
ganglion cells
their axons form the optic nerve
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts(obsessions) and/or actions(compulsions)
individualist
culture in which the individual is valued more highly than the group
coding
the conversion of an item's physical features into a specific pattern of neural activity
Discriminative Stimuli
Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
a major inhibitory neurotransmitter; stops too many neurons from firing and makes them more precise; found in 1/3 of brain's synapses.
Amnesia
The sudden loss of memory, usually precipitated by a traumatic event (antergrade and retrograde)
Vogel and Bogen
Two neurosurgeons who proposed splitting the brain of one of their severely epileptic patients.
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect if being studied
Cones
Photoreceptors in the retina that are especially sensitive to colors but not to dim light. They are cone-shaped.
heritability
the extent to which differences in a group of a characteristic is due to genetics, not environment
Random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
refractory period
resting pause when axon forces Na cations back out of it; prepares to fire another impulse
Action Potential
The stage at which a neuron "fires".
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
Acoustic Encoding
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Anchoring Effect
tendency to be influenced by a suggested reference point, pulling our response toward that point
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered.
Critical Period
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development.
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
cerebellum
"little brain"; part of the brain that coordinates balance, movement, reflexes
Psychopharmacology
_________ is the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior, (p. 518)
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
posthypnotic amnesia
supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
temporal lobes
lies above the ears, receives auditory info
savant syndrome
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as computation or drawing.
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to
reason abstractly
parasympathetic nervous system
a branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal body functions; it calms the body after sympathetic stimulation
monocular cues
cues for depth that can be perceived by each eye alone, such as relative size and interposition
Fight or Flight Reaction
Sympathetic nervous system arouses us and we either attack or run away.
rooting
a reflex in which a newborn turns its head in response to a gentle stimulus on its cheek
phallic psychosexual stage
3-6 years, pleasure zone is the genitals; incestuous feelings
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs in the absence of direct reinforcement and that is not necessarily demonstrated through observable behavior
Altered state of consciousness
any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking beta wave state; describes induced changes in one's mental state, almost always temporary.
Unconscious motivation
Having a desire to engage in an activity but being consciously unaware of the desire. Freud's psychoanalytic theory emphasized unconscious motivation.
Just Noticeable Difference
The smallest change in a sensory perception that is detectable 50% of the time.
Parallel processing
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress
placebo effect
any effect on behavior caused by a placebo
Phoneme
A basic or minimum unit of sound in a language.
Ethical standards for psychological research
Rules researchers must follow when conducting experiments (anonymity, no threats to health, debrief, etc.)
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness
The Angular Gyrus
Region in the Parietal Lobe related to cognition and language
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Sleep Stages 3 and 4
these two stages have slow wave sleep, Delta waves
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