AP Psychology and Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Phobophobia
fear of phobias
SSRI's
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. (Selective because only Against reuptake of Serotonin). *First line of anti-depressants with fewer side-effects. Used for GAD, PMDD, SAD. Allowing more serotonin to remain Longer in the cleft.
GAD
experienced as relentless, free-floating anxiety, a general sense of foreboding doom
shaping
positively reinforcing closer and closer approximation of a desired behavior to teach a new behavior
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person
Random Sample
fairly represents a population.
unconscious
contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
inhibitoty
substance that decreases the likelihood that a neuron will fire
manifest
describes, in Freudian terms, the surface content of a dream
Tolman
cognition; studied rats and discovered the "cognitive map" in rats and humans
debriefing
a procedure to inform participants about the true nature of an experiment after its completion
cochlea
snail-shaped fluid-filled tube in the inner ear involved in transduction
fixed interval
describes the schedule of reinforcement wherein a worker receives a paycheck every Friday
encoding
converting information into a usable form
Lawrence Kohlberg
Developmental Psychology. Stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional, and postconventional).
Telegraphic Stage
The economical, telegram-like speech of children in the two-word stage. Utterances consist mostly of nouns and verbs; however, words occur in the correct order, showing that the child has learned some of the language's syntactic rules.
means-end analysis
a problem-solving heuristic that involves breaking down a larger problem into a series of subgoals
John Garcia
fed wolves contaminated sheep carcasses until they grew to avoid sheep entirely
Maintenance Rehearsal
STM information retained longer because the information is intentionally repeated
Tests
a systematic procedure for observing behavior in a standard situation and describing it with the help of a numerical scale or a category system.
depressants
drugs that reduce neural activity, slow body function (alcohol, barbituates, opiates)
Acetylcholine
enables muscle action, learning, and memory, neurotransmitter
Elaboration
linking a stimulus to other information at the tme of encoding
Psychologist who believe in the instinct theory
Freud
lesion
any destruction or damage to brain tissue
John B Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain events or emotions will occur
relearning
learning info for a second time, faster
memory structure: hippocampus
brain structure associated with information passing from short-term memory into long-term memory; if damaged can't "create" long memories and will live in present
-memories prior to damage will remain intact
Information Processing Model
Cognitive understanding of memory emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved
Amygdala
An almond-shaped part of the limbic system to the regulation of emotional responses, especially fear.
cognitive psychology
an approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes
Robert Rescorla
is a Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania and co-creator of the Rescorla-Wagner model.
is primarily interested in elementary learning processes, particularly Pavlovian conditioning and instrumental learning
self-discrepancy theory
the notion that discrepancies between one's self concept and "ideal" and "ought" selves have negative emotional consequences
Sensory Adaptation
Refers to the decreased sensitivity that occurs with continued exposure to an unchanging stimulus.
Companionate Love
deep affectionate attachment we feel for those whom our lives are intertwined
chunking
the process of enhancing retention of a large amount of information by breaking it down into smaller more easily recalled chunks.
Mary Calkins
studied under James, founded a psychology lab at Wellesley College; First woman to serve as president of American Psychological association in 1905
Major depressive disorder
Mood disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure.
Stroke
The sudden loss of consciousness and resulting paralysis, loss of sensation, and other disability or death resulting from blockage of blood to a part of the brain or from bleeding in the brain.
Latent Content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
MRI
a technique that enables us to see static images of the brain's structures; uses magnetism to achieve this effect
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Manifest Content
The overt story line, characters, and setting of a dream-the obvious, clearly discernible events of the dream
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish
statistical significance
The condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low.
Sensory memory
The first of three memory stages, preserving brief sensory impressions of stimuli
REM Sleep
A stage of sleep that occurs approximately every 90 minutes marked by bursts of rapid eye movements occuring under closed eyelids
frontal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Role
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
grasping reflex
in infants, the automatic tendency to grasp an object that stimulates the palm
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
Corpus Callosum
large band of neural fibers connecting the 2 hemispheres of the brain, carries messages between them
fluid intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Paranoid personality disorder
an excessive anxiety or fear concerning one's own well-being which is considered irrational and excessive
Placebo effects
a helpful result of psychotherapy that occurs because the patient hopes and believes in the treatment and that the improvement will occur
wavelength
the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 204)
metaphor
a figure of speech used to represent an object or concept by comparing it to another.
Nerve network that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Reticular formation
Sleep
idea that everyone needs 8 hours of sleep is not true
teenages need about 8 or 9 hours of sleep
studies on accidents after daylight savings
depends on age, genetics, and culture as well
evolutionary ideas-sleep protects us
sleep debt-can take weeks to recover
strengthens memory
increases concentration
boosts mood
moderates hunger and obesity
fortifies immune system
lessens the risk of fatal accidents
growth hormome production
Just Noticeable Difference
smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A new technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain.
Short-Term Store
Has a modest capacity and a duration for storing information of only seconds.
Dorothea Dix
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
moon illusion
the tendency for people to see the moon as larger when it's low on the horizon than when it's overhead
Behavior Genetics
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Bystander Effect
tendency for any given person to be less likely to give aid if others are present
Piaget's formal operational stage
the stage of cognitive (normally beginning about age 12), during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
Francis Galton
English scientist who was the first to try and invent simple measures to test mental ability, Eugenics movement
detection; interpretation
sensation is to __as perception is to ___
Relative Motion
as we move, objects that are stable may appear to move
objects that are closer appear to move backwards
Law of Common Fate
Gestalt principle that we tend to group similr objects togehter that share a common motion or destination
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce discomfort we feel when our thoughts are inconsitent
constructionist theory
a theory that holds that memory is not a replica of the past, but a representation, or reconstruction, of the past
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