AP Psychology Final Exam Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
frontal lobe
higher
Stereotypes
Prototypes of people
Amnesia
the loss of memory
Sleep Stage 2
sleep spindles
Alfred Adler
1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes Studies: Birth Order
dendrites
treelike structures projecting from the soma that receive neural messages from neighboring neurons
Festinger
the psychologist who proposed cognitive dissonance theory
Enzymes
Organic substances that produce certain chemical changes in other organic substances through a catalytic action.
Trait
A relatively permanent internal characteristic (e.g., friendly, outgoing)
recall
retrieval of previously learned info
Positron emission tomography scan (PET)
glucose
DSM
initials of the American Psychiatric Association's book that lists diagnostic criteria for many psychological disorders
sleep
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness—as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. (Adapted from Dement, 1999.)
Functionalism
the school of psychology that emphasizes the use or functions of the mind rather than the elements of experience.
constancy
the tendency to percieve certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting.
Discrimination
when only the conditioned stimulus produces the conditioned response
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging, having consistent lightness, color, shape and size, even as illumination and retinal images change.
Toleman
Developed idea of latent learning, there is more to learning than associating a response with a consequence
behavioral
perspective on psychology that sees psychology as an objective science without reference to mental states
hypothesis
a tentative statement or idea expressing a causal relationship between two events or variables that is to be evaluated in a research study
meta-analysis
a procedure for statistically combing the results of many different research studies
psychophysiological illness
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches. Note: This is distinct from hypochondriasis—misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 556)
Hallucinations
False sensory experiance, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Semantics
area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations
Hit
detecting stimuli when they are present
Acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction
amygdala
to almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and linked to emotion
ganglion cells
their axons form the optic nerve
empiricism
the view that knowledge should be acquired through observation and often an experiment
Panic Disorder
an enxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
Interval schedules
A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is delivered after a response that has been made at the end of a given time period.
mode
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Peripheral Route Persuasion
superficial information used to distract audience an win favorable approval, use celebrities or athletes
phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
ego
the Latin for "I"; in Freud's theories, the mediator between the demands of the id and the superego
limbic system
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
rTMS
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
Experimental Method
a research methodology, which, through the use of a control group, can establish a causal relationship between independent and dependent variables
Aggression
Any behavior intended to harm another person or thing.
Counterconditioning
_________ is a category of behavior therapy in which new responses are classically conditioned to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors, (p. 502)
consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environments
mutation
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
informational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
neuron
the fundamental building block of the nervous system
Psychopharmacology
The study of psychoactive drugs and their effects.
Dual processing
The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on seperate conscious and unconscious tracks.
color constancy
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
Optic Nerve
Neural mechanism that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain; creates blind spot on retina.
stereotype threat
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
Hormone
A chemical messenger used by the endocrine system. many hormones also serve as neurotransmitters.
Interneurons
Related to reflexes, located in spinal cord, doctor using hammer on knee.
assignment
the transference of a right, interest, or title, or the instrument of transfer; a transference of property to assignees for the benefit of creditors
Insomnia
A sleep disorder in which a person feels tired during the day because of trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night.
Locke
said mind is a blank slate at birth
Statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
projective trait
a personality test, such as the Rorschan or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Brain Stem
provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck
GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid
A major inhibitory neuro-transmitter; undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. the action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
Temporal lobe
handles auditory input and is critical for processing speech and appreciating music
motor cortex
strip of frontal lobe specialized for processing sensations of touch and for integrating various sensations
The intensity
____________ of light and sound is determined by the amplitude of the waves and is experienced as brightness and loudness, respectively, (p. 144) Example: Sounds that exceed 85 decibels in ampli­tude, or intensity, will damage the auditory system.
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession
inferiority complex
Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences
Broca's area
-located in the frontal lobe, directs muscular movements involved in speech
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists. (p. 33)
Addiction
development of a physical need for a pyschoactive drug
Homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
The decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentation of the same stimulus is called what?
Habituation
Binocular Cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
scientific method
an approach to knowledge that relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing testable hypotheses based on the theory, and testing those hypotheses empirically
shape constancy
perceiving the same shape for objects, even if retinal image changes
Gate-control theory
An explanation for pain control that proposes we have a neural 'gate' that can, under some circumstances, block incoming pain signals.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
Sensorimotor stage
The first of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development (covering roughly the first 2 years of life), during which the child develops some motoer coordination skills and a memory for past events
Group-centered therapy
the term applied to the system of applied to the system of group therapy developed by Carl Rogers and associates in which the individuals in the group rather than the therapist have the primary role in the therapeutic relationship.
3 Tiny Bones in Ear
Malleus (Hammer), Incus (Anvil), Stapes (Stirrup)
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
A belief leads to actions that make the belief come true, usually without the person realizing this
CAT scan
a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
receptor site
areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neuron transmitters
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions, an impediment to problem solving
Spinal cord
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
Fixed Interval Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a specific period of time.
Population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
Locke's beliefs
belief that we learn to perceive the world through our experiences
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
operational definition
a definition of a variable in terms of the set of methods or procedures used to measure or study that variable
Examples of Extraneous Variables
Placebo effect; life changes for the better; making better decisions because one is older and wiser
Central Nervous System
the part of the vervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Inner Ear
Depends upon waves in a fluid that are converted into a stream of neural signals sent to the brain. Sound enters the cochlea through the oval window. The waves in the fluid stimulate the hair cells in the basilar membrane, which then convert physical stimulation into neural impulses that are sent to the brain.
socioculture perspective
the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in behavior and mental processes.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
a mood disorder in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year experience depressive symptoms in the winter, or less frequently, in the summer, spring, or autumn, repeatedly year after year.
Mean, median, and mode
The mean is the average of all numbers in a data set. The median is the middle. The mode is the number that appears the most.
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